注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

素心守拙

那怕老态龙钟时,也愿保持一颗天真的心。

 
 
 

日志

 
 

分词 的用法  

2012-09-12 21:15:29|  分类: 英语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

第九章 分词

9.1 分词作定语

 分词前置 
 We can see the rising sun. 我们可以看到东升的旭日
 He is a retired worker.  他是位退休的工人
 
 分词后置 (i分词词组;ii 个别分词如given, left; iii 修饰不定代词 something等)
 There was a girl sitting there. 有个女孩坐在那里
 This is the question given.   这是所给的问题
 There is nothing interesting.  没有有趣的东西

 过去分词作定语
 与其修饰的词是被动关系,相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。
 Most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists.
 Most of the artists invited to the party were from South Africa.

典型例题
  1) The first textbook ___ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. 
A. have written  B. to be written  C. being written  D. written
答案D. 书与写作是被动关系,应用过去分词做定语表被动,相当于定语从句 which is written
 
  2)What's the language ____ in Germany? 
A. speaking  B. spoken   C. be spoken  D. to speak
答案B. 主语language与谓语动词之间有被动的含义。
  spoken是动词speak的过去分词形式,在句中作定语,修饰主语language, spoken 与 language有被动关系。该句可以理解为:
What's the language (which is) spoken in German?

9.2 分词作状语

  As I didn't receive any letter from him, I gave him a call.
->; Not receiving any letter from him, I gave him a call.
  由于没有收到他的信,我给他打了电话。
  If more attention was given, the trees could have grown better.
->; Given more attention,the trees could have grown better.
 假如多给些照顾,那些树会长得更好。

典型例题
 1)_____ some officials, Napoleon inspected his army.
A. Followed  B. Followed by  C. Being followed  D. Having been followed
 答案B. Napoleon 与follow 之间有被动的含义。being followed除表达被动之外,还有动作正在进行之意。 followed by(被…跟随)。本题可改为:                 With some officials following, Napoleon inspected his army.
 
 2)There was a terrible noise ___ the sudden burst of light. 
A. followed  B. following  C. to be followed  D. being followed
 答案B. 由于声音在闪电后,因此为声跟随着光,声音为跟随的发出者,为主动。用现在分词。
 
 3)_______, liquids can be changed into gases.
A. Heating  B. To be heated  C. Heated  D. Heat
 答案C. 本题要选一分词作为状语。现在分词表主动,正在进行的;过去分词表被动的,已经完成的。对于液体来说是加热的受动者,是被动的,因而选C。它相当于一个状语从句 When it is heated,…

 注意:选择现在分词还是过去分词,关键看主句的主语。如分词的动作是主句的主语发出,分词就选用现在分词,反之就用过去分词。
(Being ) used for a long time, the book looks old.
  由于用了很长时间,这本书看上去很旧。
Using the book, I find it useful.
  在使用的过程中, 我发现这本书很有用。

9.3 连词+分词(短语)

  有时为使分词短语与主句关系更清楚,可在分词前加连词。 连词有: when,while,if though,after, before, as. 但分词的主语和主句的主语必须为同一个,如:
  While waiting there, he saw two pretty girls come out of the building.
  waiting 和saw 的主语相同。

9.4 分词作补语

  通常在感官动词和使役动词之后,如:
  I found my car missing. 我发现我的车不见了。
  I'll have my watch repaired. 我想把我的手表修一下。

9.5 分词作表语

现在分词: 表示主动,正在进行
过去分词: 表示被动,已经完成
  She looked tired with cooking. 她由于忙着做饭,看上去有些疲倦。
  He remained standing beside the table. 他依然站在桌旁。
9.6 分词作插入语

  其结构是固定的,意思上的主语并不是句子的主语。
 generally speaking 一般说来
 talking of (speaking of) 说道
 strictly speaking 严格的说
 judging from 从…判断
 all things considered 从整体来看
 taking all things into consideration 全面看来

  Judging from his face, he must be ill. 从他的脸色看,他一定是病了。
  Generally speaking, dogs can run faster than pigs. 总的来说,狗比猪跑得快。 (speaking 并不是dogs 的动作)

9.7 分词的时态

1)与主语动词同时,
 Hearing the news, he jumped with joy.  听到这一消息,他高兴得手舞足蹈。
 Arriving there, they found the boy dead. 刚一到那儿,他们就发现那男孩死了。

典型例题
  The secretary worked late into the night, ___a long speech for the president.
A. to prepare  B. preparing  C. prepared  D. was preparing 
  答案B. 此处没有连词,不能选D,否则出现了两个谓语动词worked和was preparing。只能在B,C中选一个。又因前后两个动作同时发生,且与主语为主动关系,应用现在分词。

2)先于主动词
  While walking in the garden,he hurt his leg. 在花园里散步时他伤了腿。
  分词作时间状语,如果先与主动词的动作,且强调先后, 要用having done。
  Having finished his homework, he went out.
  =As he had finished his homework, he went out.
   做完作业后,他出去了。

典型例题
  ___ a reply, he decided to write again. 
A. Not receiving  B. Receiving not  C. Not having received  D. Having not received  
  答案C. 本题考查分词的时态与分词的否定式。根据题意判断,分词的动作(接信)发生在谓语动词的动作(决心再写信)之前,因此用分词的完成式。分词的否定式的构成为not +分词,故选C。该句可理解为:Because he had not received a reply, he decided to write again.

9.8 分词的语态

1)通常,现在分词表示主动,过去分词表示被动,例如:
He is the man giving you the money. (= who gave you…) 他就是给你钱的那个人。
He is the man stopped by the car.  ( = who was stopped by…)
他就是那个被车拦住的人。

2)不及物动词的过去分词表示动作已经发生 
gone, fallen, retired, grown-up, escaped, faded, returned
例: a well-read person.  一个读过许多书的人
   a much-travelled may 一个去过许多地方的人
   a burnt-out match   烧完了的火柴
________________________________________
第十章 独立主格

10.1 独立主格

(一):独立主格结构的构成:
名词(代词)+现在分词、过去分词;
名词(代词)+形容词;
名词(代词)+副词;
名词(代词)+不定式;
名词(代词) +介词短语构成。 

(二)独立主格结构的特点:
  1)独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在。
  2)名词或代词与后面的分词,形容词,副词,不定 式,介词等是主谓关系。
  3)独立主格结构一般有逗号与主句分开。
举例:
  The test finished, we began our holiday.
 = When the test was finished, we began our holiday.
  考试结束了,我们开始放假。
  
  The president assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.
 = After the president was assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.
  总统被谋杀了,举国上下沉浸在悲哀之中。

  Weather permitting, we are going to visit you tomorrow. 
  如果天气允许,我们明天去看你。
This done, we went home.   
  工作完成后,我们才回家。

  The meeting gone over, everyone tired to go home earlier. 
  会议结束后,每个人都想早点回家。

  He came into the room, his ears red with cold.
他回到了房子里,耳朵冻坏了。
  
  He came out of the library, a large book under his arm.
 他夹着本厚书,走出了图书馆


10.2 With的复合结构作独立主格

  表伴随时,既可用分词的独立结构,也可用with的复合结构。
  with +名词(代词)+现在分词/过去分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语
举例: He stood there, his hand raised.
  = He stood there, with his hand raise.

典型例题
  The murder was brought in, with his hands ___ behind his back。
A. being tied  B. having tied  C. to be tied  D. tied  
  答案D. with +名词(代词)+分词+介词短语结构。当分词表示伴随状况时,其主语常常用with来引导。由于本句中名词"手"与分词"绑"是被动关系,因此用过去分词,选D.  

注意:

1) 独立主格结构使用介词的问题:
  当介词是in时,其前后的两个名词均不加任何成分(如物主代词或冠词),也不用复数。但 with 的复合结构不受此限制
  A robber burst into the room, knife in hand. 
  ( hand前不能加his)。     

2) 当表人体部位的词做逻辑主语时,及物动词用现在分 词,不及物动词用过去分词。
  He lay there, his teeth set, his hand clenched, his eyes looking straight up.
 
典型例题:
 Weather___, we'll go out for a walk.
 A permitted  B permitting  C permits  D for permitting
  答案B. 本题中没有连词,它不是复合句,也不是并列句。 句中使用了逗号,且we 小写,可知其不是两个简单句。能够这样使用的只有独立主格或with的复合结构。据此判断,本句中使用的是独立结构,其结构为:名词+分词。由于permit在这里翻译为'天气允许',表主动,应用现在分词,故选B。
  如果不会判断独立结构作状语的形式,不妨将句子改为条件句,例如本句改为If weather permits, we'll go out for a walk. 然后将if 去掉,再将谓语动词改为非谓语动词即可。
____本文选自岸江的新浪博客____________________________________

  评论这张
 
阅读(123)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017