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素心守拙

那怕老态龙钟时,也愿保持一颗天真的心。

 
 
 

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虚拟语气全讲精炼  

2012-04-29 08:18:40|  分类: 英语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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虚拟语气全讲精炼

1. 英语中的三种语气
英语共有三种语气,陈述语气、祈使语气和虚拟语气。

陈述语气用来讲述事实,有肯定、否定、询问和感叹等形式,谓语动词有人称、时态和数的变化;

祈使语气用于提出请求、建议、劝告、命令和警告等,以动词原形起句,否定式句前加Don’t;

虚拟语气表示说话人所言内容不是事实,而是一种假设、愿望、建议、请求、命令或猜测,有时只是说话者的主观愿望,或表达他/她的强烈情感,谓语动词用特殊形式。
2. 非真实条件句的虚拟语气
条件从句 主句
过去 had done would/should/might/could/ought to have done
现在 did(be用were) would/should/might/could/ought to do
将来 1、did
2、should do
3、were to do would/should/might/could/ought to do
主句中五个虚拟引导词:

might, should, could, ought to, would
2.1. 与过去事实相反
1). If I had had much money at that time, I would have bought you what you want.
2). If you had been more careful, the mistake might have been avoided.
3). If you had taken my advice, you wouldn’t have made such a mistake.
4). We wouldn’t have succeeded if it had not been for their help.
5). If you had been here yesterday, you would have met the film star.
6). If I had known more about giving first aid, I could have helped them.
7). If you had got up earlier, you would have caught the train.
8). If we had had enough rain last year, we could have gained a good harvest.
9). If you had worked a little harder, you could have passed the final examination.
10). If they had invited her to the party, she would have attended it.
2.2.与现在事实相反
1). If I were you, I would go there at once.
2). If my classmates were here, they would help me.
3). If I were you, I would accept the job.
4). If classes were smaller, children would learn more.
5). If I were ten years younger, I would start all over again.
6). If I had enough money, I would buy a large house.
7). If I had time, I would go shopping with you.
8). If I knew all the answers to all your questions, I would be a genius.
9). If he were here now, we would ask him about it.
10). If I had time, I would study French.
11). If I knew her number, I could ring her. (可惜我不知道)
12). If there were no gravity, we should not be able to walk. (实际上地球引力始终存在。)
13). If I knew the answer, I would tell you. (实际上我确实不知道,所以肯定不能告诉你。)
14). If I had money on me, I would lend you some.
15). We would not be able to walk if there were no friction.
16). If you were in my position, what would you do?
17). If they treated me as a slave, I had to resign.
18). If there were no examinations, we should have a much happier time.
19). If wishes were horses, beggars might ride. (如果幻想能成为马匹,叫花子们都有了坐骑。)
20). Life might be too dull if it had no difficulties in it. (倘若生活中没了困难,就会过于平淡。)
2.3. 与将来事实相反
1). If it rained / should rain / were to rain tomorrow, we would have a rest.
2). If the sun were to rise from the west, I would marry you.
(注意:对将来虚拟的条件从句中,在实现的可能性方面过去式did最大,should do中等,were to do最小。如本句太阳没有可能从西方升起,所以本句用were to最恰当。)
3). If I were to meet her tomorrow, I would ask her about it.
4). If green plants should disappear some day, there would hardly be any life on the earth.
5). If I were to do the work, I would do it in a different way.
6). If it should(were to) rain this afternoon, the football match would be put off.
7). If you missed the film this evening, you would be sorry for it. (如果今晚错过了这场电影,你会遗憾的。实际上,你不会错过。)
8). If I were to see her tomorrow, I would invite her home.
9). If you lived there for several months, you would change your mind about the place.
10). If things were to be done twice, all would be wise. (如果事情能被做两次,人人都会变得明智。)
2.4. 混合型
1). If you had followed the doctor’s advice, you would be much better now.(过去→现在)
2). If you had worked hard, you would be a college student now.(过去→现在)
3). If you had listened to me, you wouldn’t be in such trouble now.(过去→现在)
4). If you had got six more votes yesterday, you would be our chairman now. (过去→现在)
5). If I had earned much money last summer, I would go on a vacation next month. (过去→将来)
6). If you hesitated this moment, you might suffer in future. (现在→将来)
7). If the doctor had come sooner last night, Tom would be alive today. (过去→现在)
8). If I were you, I would have gone to her birthday party. (现在→过去)
9). If it had rained last night, the ground would be wet now. (过去→现在)
10). If you hadn’t lent me some money, I couldn’t have bought the new house and most likely I wouldn’t be still living in the dangerous house now. (过去→过去→现在)
2.5. if的省略与条件句的倒装
1). Were I you, I would have accepted the job.
2). Were she here, she would support us.
3). Were you to go fishing with me, you would have a much happier time.
4). Were men angels, no government would be necessary. (如果人人都是天使,政府就没有必要了。)
5). Were she my daughter, I wouldn’t allow her to study abroad.
6). Had you come earlier, you would have met my girlfriend.
7). Had I time, I would come. (本句中had是实意动词,而非主动词。)
8). Had I been informed earlier, I could have done something to prevent it from happening.
9). Many persons in the worls would have succeeded had they not wasted their valuable time.
10). Should it be fine tomorrow, we would go outing.
11). Should you change your mind, no one would blame you.
12). We would gone to your birthday party had you invited us.
13. I would go should it be necessary.
14). What would have happened had Bob walked farther, as far as the river bank?
15). Had it not been for you, I would have lost my way.
16). Were it not for water, no plant could grow.
(注:例句8、9知识点见“二→6→B→a”。)
17). Be they common people or high-ranking officials, they stand equal before the law. (Whether they be…)
18). Be the weather what it may, I will leave tomorrow. (Whether the weather be what it may, …)
(注:例句13、14知识点见“八→5”。)
注意:在这一结构中,若条件句为否定句,not应被放在主语之后,而不能缩写成weren’t, shouldn’t或hadn’t而置于居首。如例15,16。
2.6. 含蓄型:
A. with :“要是有,如果有”,表示与现在事实相反的假设。
1). With your help, we would have worked out the problem.
(要是有你的帮助,我们早就解出这道题了。实际上你没有帮助我们,我们也没有解出这道题。)
2). With a little asssistance, Alexander would have succeeded.
3). With better equipment, we could have done it better.
B. a. without / but for / if it were not for(were it not for) / if it hadn’t been for(had it not been for) / in the absence of + Sb. /Sth.
b. but that + 句子;
注意: a.b. 都表示“要不是,若非,如果没有,如果不是”, 表示与现在事实相反的假设。
1). Without your help, I wouldn’t have made such rapid progress.
2). Without the programmer(程序编制人员), the computer would be useless.
3). Without sunshine, nothing could grow on earth.
4). Without water or air, nothing could live.
5). Without contradiction nothing could exist. (没有矛盾,就没有世界)
6). Without him, we would have failed.
7). Without the difficulies we would not know great men’s toughness. (如果没有困难, 我们就不会了解伟人的坚韧性格。)
8). I would never make it without the havits of order and diligence. (假如没有按部就班和勤奋的习惯,我就不会成功。)
9). Without challenges, Obama would never have been President of the United States.
10). Without steel, there would be no modern industry. (没有钢,就没有现代工业。)
11). But for the rain, we should have had a pleasant journey.
12). But for your timely rescue, the boy would have drowned.
13). But for friction, people could neither walk, nor even stand up.
(注:以上例句1-13without, but for都可互换,并可替换为in the absence of; 若是对现在或将来的虚拟,可用If it were not for替换;若是对过去的虚拟则可用If it had not been for来替换。)
14). But that he saw it, he could not have believed it.
15). The little girl would have fallen into the river but that the PLA man caught her.
16). But that you didn’t let me take that cup of tea I would have been posioned to death.
17). She would have come to see you that day but that she was ill. (=But for her illness)
18). But that it snowed heavily, they could have arrived there earlier. (=But for the heavy snow, …)
19). She would have bought the book but that she had no money then.
20). If it weren’t for my job, I would come with you.
21). If it were not for his wife’s money he would never be a mayor.
22). If it hadn’t been for the doctor’s care, I should not be speaking to you now.
23). If it had not been for you, I could not have worked out the problem.
C. or, or else, otherwise;
1). I didn’t catch the bus, otherwise I wouldn’t have missed the film.
2). I got up too late, otherwise I wouldn’t have been late for the meeting.
3). She wasn’t feeling very well. Otherwise she wouldn’t have left the meeting so early.
4). I was ill that day. Otherwise I would have taken part in the parade(游行).
5). I am busy now. Otherwise, I would help you.
6). He can’t have written to me, otherwise I would have got his letter by now.
7). He told me of your arrival, or I would have known nothing about it.
8). The soldier fled away, or he would have been killed.
9). I didn’t know that he was a liar, or else I wouldn’t have believed him.
D. 通过上下文推断,没有引导词,真正的含蓄。
1). Born in better times, he would have been a scholar(学者).
2). I would do so in your position.
3). Given more time, we would do it better.
4). Unless you had done it earlier, you would have failed.
2.7. suppose(that), supposing(that); provided (that); assuming (that); on condition that; given that
1). Suppose/supposing that there were no gravity, objects would not fall to ground when dropped.
=If there were no gravity, objects would not fall to ground when dropped.
2). Supposing you couldn’t write, what would you do?
3). Children were permitted into the hall for the film provided (that) they did not make any trouble.
4). The guards allow the tourists to go into the woods on condition that they (should)do no harm to the animals.
(on condition that = only if, 它所引导从句的谓语动词的语气可陈述,可虚拟,但均表示一个真实条件。)
5). Given that he doesn’t agree to do it, we shall do it alone.
(given that表示一个真实条件,其从句谓语动词用陈述语气。)
3. 宾语从句的虚拟语气
3.1. wish
wish that … had done → 表示对过去已发事情的虚拟
wish that … did/were → 表示对现在正发事情的虚拟
wish that … were to/should/could/might/would do → 表示对将来要发事情的虚拟
1). I wish I were a bird.
2). The ugly girl wishes she were better looking.
3). Sometimes I wish I were living in a different time and a different place.
4). How I wish every family had a large house with a beautiful garden!
5). I have never been to New York, but how I wish I had.
6). I wish I could fly to the moon in a spaceship one day.
7). How we wish we could have a rest tomorrow!
8). I wish I could stand on a busy street corner, hat in hand, and beg people to throw me all their wasted hours.
(我希望自己站在熙熙攘攘的大街上,手里拿着帽子,乞求人们把废弃的时光扔给我。)
9). I wish I had never met him.
10). I wish you hadn’t spent so much money.
3.2. would rather (that)…
本结构从句是一般过去时时,表示一个对现在或将来的愿望;是过去完成时时,表示对过去已发事件的一种妄想,表明说话者宁愿某人做或没有做某事,实际上却恰恰相反。具有相同用法的结构还有would sooner, would as soon, would just as soon,它们可替换would rather。
1). I would rather you were home now. 
2). I’d sooner you painted the wall green next time.
3). I would rather you had been there with me. (实际上不是你,是别人)
4). I’d rather you had more health than wealth.
5). I’d rather you hadn’t done that. (实际上已做)
  6). I would rather that I had stayed at home yesterday. (实际上并没有)
7). I would just as soon that John hadn’t spoken rudely to me.
8). I’d rather you had told me the truth.
9). I’d rather everyting hadn’t happened between us.
试比较:
1)、would rather后接动词原形,表示对现在或将来某种行为的一种主观愿望或选择,为陈述语气。
1). I would rather stay at home than go to the cinema.
2). The brave soldiers would tather die than surrender to the enemy.
3). I’d rather not go to the cinema tonight.
2)、would rather后接不定式完成时表示对已发生事件的后悔。
4). I’d rather not have told her the news. She is such a gossip.
5). The film was terrible. I’d rather not have gone to the cinema last night.
6). ---Did you blame him for his mistakes? ---Yes, but I’d rather not have done it.
3.3. 表示愿望、建议、请求、命令等含义的动词
3.3.1. 这类动词的宾语从句的谓语形式为should + 动词原形,should可以省略,但引导词that通常不省略。常用的这类动词有:
advise忠告,建议 ask要求 command命令 decide决定
demand要求 desire希望,可望 determine决定 insist坚持
order命令 prefer宁愿 promise允诺 propose提议
recommend推荐,劝告 request要求 require要求 suggest建议
3.3.2. 巧记宾从用虚拟语气的动词
方法一、一坚二命三建四要
一坚持 → insist 二命令 → order, command
三建议 → suggest, advise, recommend 四要求 → require, request, demand, desire
方法二、DISCO (迪斯科)
D→ demand I → insist S → suggest
C → command O → order
方法三、I drop caps.
I →insist D→demand/desire R→require/request/recommend
O→order P→propose C→command
A→advise P→prefer S→suggest
3.3.3. 例句
1). The driver demanded that all the passengers show their tickets to him.
2). The officer ordered that his troops move on to the front.
3). The commander commanded that we attack at once.
4). In the past men generally preferred that their wives work in the home.
5). I prefer that you not eat that much.
6). I propose that Mr. Li be the chairman.
7). I recommended that you should reduce your expenditure.
8). He asks that he be given an opportunity to try this method.
9). I asked that I be allowed to see her.
10). He insisted that a doctor be sent for at once.
11). Our teacher insisted that we not play computer games at school.
12). Who do you suggest be sent to work there?
13). We suggest that he give less money to his child.
14). Mr. Wang suggested that I take enough sleep before the final examination.
15). He determined that she set off at once.
16). She advised that we keep the door locked.
17). They require that visitors not smoke in the workshop.
18). Mr. Wang required that all the students be polite to others.
注:以上各例句宾语从句中谓语动词前统统省略了should。
3.3.4、suggest与insist之例外
suggest作“建议”解时用虚拟语气,作“表明”解时用陈述语气;insist作“坚持”解时用虚拟语气,作“坚持认为,坚持说”解时用陈述语气。
1). The smile on my mother’s face suggested that she was delighted with my examination result. (非虚拟)
2). His yawns suggested that he was sleepy. (非虚拟)
3). All these facts suggest that he is innocent. (非虚拟)
4). Jane’s pale face suggested that she was ill, and his parents suggested that she have a medical examination. (前实后虚)
5). He insisted that he had done right. (非虚拟)
6). He insisted that he was not involved in the case. (非虚拟)
7). He insisted that he had not been late that morning. (非虚拟)
8). He insisted that what he said was true and we insisted that he go and have a look. (前实后虚)
9). The aged man insisted that he wasn’t ill and shouldn’t be sent to the hospital.
4. 主语从句的虚拟语气
基本结构:
It be /seem + (表示愿望、建议、命令、要求、意志、惊讶、不满、遗憾等意义的) 形容词/过去分词/名词 + that + 主语+ (should)+动词原形.
在本结构中it是形式主语,真正的主语是后面的that从句, 从句中谓语动词的形式为should do, should 可以省略。
4.1. It is + adj. + that + … (should) do …
常用的此类形容词有:
advisable明智的 amazing令人吃惊的 disappointing令人失望的
embarrassing令人尴尬的 essential重要的 important重要的
incredible令人难以置信的 natural自然的 necessary 必需的,不可缺少的
strange奇怪的 surprising令人惊讶的 vital 至关重要的
urgent紧急的 astonishing 令人惊讶的 imperative 势在必行的


1). It is natural that he object to a plan like that.
2). It is necessary that we tell him the truth at once.
3). It is not necessary that everyone be a scientist.
4). It is essential that every child be given the same educational opportunities.
5). It is urgent that a doctor should be sent for immediately.
6). It is advisable that everyone have a map.
7). It is vital that the headmaster receive this letter this evening.
8). It is important that you should thank those who supported you through the disappointments.
(重要的是, 你应该感谢那些在你失意时给予你支持的人。)
9). It is really strange that the girl be married so early. (真奇怪,那小姑娘竟然这么早就出嫁了!)
10). It is amazing that he should have learnt so much in such a short time.
11). It is strange that he have left without saying good-bye.
12). It is surprising that he should be so foolish as to believe her lie
13). It was astonishing that she have kept the secret from him all through their lifetime.
14). It seems incredible that he have finished the work so soon. (他竟然这么快就完成了工作,这似乎令人难以置信。)
注意:
a. 在It is amazing/surprising/astonishing/strange/incrediable/a pity/a shame that ... 结构中,that虚拟从句表示说话人的惊讶、懊悔、失望等强烈的情感,含有“竟然, 居然”的意思,表明所发生的事情非常出人意料。如上面例句9-14。再如:
15). It’s a pity that he should miss the lecture. (真遗憾,他竟然错过了这次演讲。)
16). It’s a pity that he should turn down my offer. (真遗憾,他竟然拒绝了我的提议。)
17). It is a shame that she should behave like that. (她竟然表现的那么差劲,真丢人。)
b. 本结构还可形变为It is + of + 上述形容词相对应的名词形式+ that … (should) do…。如:
18). It is of utmost importance that you be here on time.
4.2. It is + 过去分词 + that … (should) do …
常见的此类过去分词有:
suggested ordered desired proposed decided
recommended requested required demanded

1). It is suggested that more trees should be planted to prevent sandatorms.
2). It is required that the students wear school uniforms at school.
3). It is decided that no smoking be allowed in the library.
4). It is demanded that one of the students should stay to look after the things.
5). It is proposed that this matter be considered at the next meeting.
6). It is recommended that the work shouldn’t be started until all the preparations have been made.
5. 表语从句的虚拟语气
基本结构:
(表示提议、建议、命令、要求的)名词 + be + that +主语+ (should)+ 动词原形.
常见的此类名词有:
advice decision demand idea order plan recommendation
proposal request suggestion pity desire wish requirement

1). My suggestion is that we should try our best to help the refugees of the earthquakes.
2). The commander’s order was that soliders set out at once.
3). Our idea is that the match be put off.
4). Our decision is that the school remain closed.
5). The doctor’s advice was that you give up smoking.
6). His propoal is that the matter be discussed at the next meeting.
7). Our wish is that he should do what he pleases.
8). My desire is that all the members of the family gather once a year.
6. 同位语从句的虚拟语气
基本结构:
(表示提议、建议、命令、要求的)名词 + that +主语+ (should)+ 动词原形.

常见的此类名词有:
advice decision demand idea order plan recommendation
proposal request suggestion pity desire wish requirement

1). The people expressed their desire that the war come to an end as soon as possible.
2). What do you think of my suggestion that we send a few workers to help the othe groups?
3). I agreed to the idea that a doctor be sent for.
4). Mr. Wang’s advice that we should go over our plan once more is reasonable.
5). I am all for the proposal that a special group be set up to look into the matter.
6). It is my desire that all the members of the family gather once a year.
7. 定语从句的虚拟语气
基本结构:
a. It is (high , about) time + that +主语 + 动词过去式.
b. It is (high , about) time + that +主语 + should do.
(注意: should不能省略,that可以省略。)
本结构表示“目前该做却还没有做的事”,该事早就该做了,时间已经有些晚了。
1). It is high time that we were off.
2). It is time that someone taught you to behave yourself.
3). It’s about time that we should put an end to this controversy(争论,正义).
4). It is high time that we should prepare for the final.
5). It about time we should consider what to do next.
6). It’s time we set to work. (set为过去式)
7). It’s time we started /set off/ set out /left.
8). It’s time we found somewhere to eat.
注:句型It’s time to do sth. / It’s time for sb. to do sth. / It’s time for sth. 表示“该做某事了,是做某事的时候了”, 没有“目前该做却还没有做的事”的含义。
8. 其它类虚拟语气
8.1. as if / though
属于时态型虚拟语气,其动词结构与wish之后的虚拟语气相同。
过去 had done
现在 did(be用were)
将来 were to/should/could/might/would do
1). She speaks English very fluently as though she were born in England. (实际上不是)
2). The man talked too much as though he were drunk.(实际上说话人认为他并未喝醉)
3). He talked as if he had taken part in the Long March.
4). He operated the machine as if he were a skilled worker.
5). I remember the whole thing as if it had happened yesterday.
6). It would be an excellent rule to live each day as if we should die tomorrow.
注:以上例句1-6 as if /though 引导的是方式状语从句;但如果主句的动词是系动词be, feel, look, seem, sound, appear等时,as if / though 引导的便是表语从句了。如下列例句7-11。
7). Mary felt as though Mr. Wang were her father.
8). When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it were broken.
9). He appeared as if he had known nothing about it. (他看上去对此一无所知。)
10). I feel as if we had known each other for ages.
注意:as if / though之后即可接虚拟语气,又可接陈述语气,试比较:
11). It looks as if/though it might rain. (好像天要下雨。虚拟语气,与将来事实相反,实际上不会。)
12). It looks as if it is going to rain. (陈述语气,实际上确实会下雨。)
8.2. even if / though引导的让步状语从句
属于时态型虚拟语气,说的不一定是事实,往往表示一种虚拟的让步,其时态结构与if 引导的虚拟条件句一样。
过去 had done
现在 did(be用were)
将来 1、did;2、should do;3、were to do
1). Even if I were rich, I would work.
2). I won’t lend you any money even if I had money.
3). Even though I had been with you then, I could not have helped you.
4). We wouldn’t lose heart even if we should fail one hundred times.
5). Even if he had been there, I should have said the same thing.
6). Even though you had enough money, you could not buy the lost time.
7). It is better to invite him even though he should rufuse.
注意:Even if / though也可引导陈述语气的句子,表达一种真实的让步。试比较:
7). Even if it rains tomorrow, I will go sighting with you.(情况真实,确实照办)
8). Even if I become a millionaire, I shall always be a socialist. (陈述语气)
8.3. if only(=How I wish)引导的虚拟语气
属于时态型虚拟语气,表示一种强烈的愿望、遗憾或不满,意为“要是……就好了”,“但愿”。
1). If only I had more money! I could buy some new clothes.
2). If only I had not cheated in the examination!
3). If only we had done as we were told! This would never have happened.
4). If only I were ten years younger!
5). If only you had told me in advance!
6). If only I had not married before I met you!
7). If only you had arrived a little earlier!
注意: if only与only if的区别:only if中only只起到加强、突出的作用,if的词义并为改变,意为“只有在……条件下”,表示条件的唯一性。如:
8). Only if you help me can I succeed.
9). I will go home only if you go with me.
10). ---Will you come to Birthday Party tomorrow? --- Only if you promise not to invite Tom.
8.4. lest, for fear that引导的目的状语从句
基本结构:
lest(for fear that) + 主语 + should + 动词原形


隶属should型虚拟语气,其后动词用should + 动词原形,should可换为might, would, 也可以省略,意味“以免……, 为了……不……”。
1). She took a taxi to the station lest she should miss the train.
(= She took a taxi to the station so that(或in order that) she should not miss the train.
= She took a taxi to the station in case she should miss the train.)
2). He reminded her twice of it lest she should forget.
3). She always studies hard lest she lag behind.
4). Never let children play with fire lest they might set fire to the houses.
5). I quietly entered the room lest I should wake up my baby.
6). His mother punished him lest he should make the same mistake again.
7). He burned all the important documents lest they should fall into the enemy’s hands.
8). Weigh well your words lest they be swords.
9). We must not promise what we should not, lest we be called on to perform what we cannot.
注:以上例句1-9中lest都可被for fear that替换。
8.5. whether… or … 引导的让步状语从句
意为“不管/不论是……还是……”,结构为:
whether +主语 + be + 表语一 + or + 表语二,…
1). Whether he be rich or poor, I will marry him. (可省略whether, 此时要到装:Be he rich or poor, ...)
2). Whether it be new or old, it is my bike. (= Be it new or old, it is my bike.)
3). Be he friend or foe, the law regards him as criminal. (=Whether he be friend or foe, …)
4). Whether the figures be accurate or not,m they have to be rechecked.
5). Be they common people or high-ranking officials(高官) they stand equal before the law.
6). Every morning he goes jogging along the lake, whether it be fine or rainy.
7). She can translate all these books into Chinese, be they English, French or Latin.
8). Whether this criticism be wise or foolish, important or insignificant, it is at least natured.
(不管这批评是明智的还是愚蠢的,重要的还是无关紧要的,至少它是善意的。)
8.6. 表示祝愿、礼貌的虚拟语气
8.6.1. Long live Chairman Mao! ( live不加-s)
God bless you! ( bless不加-es)
8.6.2. May sb. do sth! & Wish sb. sth!
1). May you succeed! Wish you success!
2). May you have a good trip. Wish you a good trip.
3). May you have a happy birthday. Wish you a good birthday.
4). May you have a happy life. Wish you a happy life.
5). May the spirit of Lei Feng live on forever! (愿雷锋精神永存!)
8.6.3. 有时出于礼貌,使语气婉转,也可避免强加于人而使用虚拟语气,用来表示请求对方做某事。
1). I was wondering if you could lend me a hand.
2). I would be grateful if you could lend me some money.
3). I would really appreciate if you took a message for her.
4). I would be most honored if you taught me how to start the machine.
5). It would be nice if you helped me a bit with the housework.
8.7. 含有责备语气的虚拟语气:情态动词+have done
need have done →本有必要做却未作 needn’t have done →本不必做却做
should/ought to have done →本该做却未做 shouldn’t have done →本不该做却做
could have done →本能做却未做 couldn't have done →本不能做却做
但应注意:must have done则表示对过去的推测。
1). I could have provided you with the funds. Why didn’t you ask me?
2). The weather turned out to be fine yesterday. I needn't have taken the trouble to carry my umbrella with me. (06年江西)
3). Mr. White should have arrived at 8:30 for the meeting, but he didn’t show up. (04年全国一高考)
4). —I’ll tell Mary about her new job tomorrow. —You should have told her last week. (04年福建高考)
5). Had it not been for the traffic jam, I should have covered fifty miles.
6). She ought to have had more consideration for you. (他本应更多地为你着想。)
7). I don’t think you ought to have done that. (我认为你本不该做那种事。)
8). They oughtn’t to have let you out of hospital so soon. (他们本来不应该让你这么快出院。)
9). You needn’t have come over yourself. You could have given me a ring instead.
(你本不必亲自过来,你本可以给我打个电话就行了。)
10). You needn't have told him the news; he knew it already.
11). You shouldn't have criticized him sternly to his face. (你不应该当面这么严厉地批评他。)
8.8. 关注but
在虚拟语气中,but分句所起的作用相当于if从句的反义句,点出现在或过去的某一事实,故用陈述语气。(but I wish 除外)
1). I would have invited her to the party but I didn’t know her well. (but… = if I had known her well)
2). I would have had a rest but I had so much work to do. (but…= if I hadn’t had so much work to do)
3). She would have come to see you but she was ill that day. (but… = if she hadn’t been ill that day)
4). I should have gone to the party but I was not invited. (but… = if I had been invited)
5). I have no Chinese-English dictionary, but I wish I had one.
6). I have never been to the moon, but I wish I had.
9. 虚拟语气顿悟
9.1. 通览虚拟语气,大致可以将其分为“时态型”和“should + 动原型”两类,表析如下:





1.if 引导的非真实条件句 见上述二
2.wish之后的宾语从句 见上述三---1
3.would rather/sooner/as soon/just as soon之后的宾语从句 见上述三---2
4.as if/rough 引导的方式状语从句 见上述八---1
5.even if/though 引导的让步状语从句 见上述八---2
6.if only 引导的感叹句 见上述八---3
Should

动词原形
1.“一坚二命三建四要”之后的宾语从句(should可省略) 见上述三---3
2.主语从句(should可省略) 见上述四
3.表语从句(should可省略) 见上述五
4.同位语从句(should可省略) 见上述六
5.定语从句(should不可省略, should do可改为did) 见上述七
6.lest(for fear that)引导的目的状语从句 见上述八---4
7.whether it/he (may) be … or … 见上述八---5
9.2. 确定时间,选择动词形式
在时态型虚拟语气中,确定是对过去、现在还是将来的虚拟,是确定动词形式的关键,因为虚拟动词的“式”是由动作所发生的“时”决定的。
动作发生的“时” 虚拟动词的“式”
从句 主句
过去 had done would/should/might/could/ought to have done
现在 did(be用were) would/should/might/could/ought to do
将来 1、did 2、should do
3、were to do would/should/might/could/ought to do
请看如下例题:
例1. A. If he _______, he _______that food. B. Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately.
a. was warned; would not take b. had been warned; would not have taken
c. would be warned; had not taken d. would have been warned; had not taken
从B的应答分析,A所说的事情发生在过去,表明的当时没有人警告他,结果他吃了那种事物。实话反说就成了虚拟语气,主句和从句都是对过去的虚拟,从句用had done, 主句用would have done, 所以b是正确答案。
例2. If the sun _______ rise in the west, my love for you would be unchanged.
a. should b. were c. were to d. shall
题干在说 “要想让我对你的爱不改变,除非有一天太阳打西边出来”,主句和从句都是对将来的虚拟,虚拟条件句“太阳打西边出”根本就不可能实现,所以用were to do,选择c。
例3. If he _______ to the teacher attentively, he _______ the answer to the problem now.
a. had listened, would have known b. listened, would know
c. listened, would have known d. had listened, would know
解读题干可知,“他”现在不知道答案是因为之前没有认真听讲,一个是对现在的虚拟,一个是对过去的虚拟,是混合型虚拟语气。


虚拟语气知识点巩固、助记性精练
王 培 同
( )1. Jean doesn’t want to work right away, because she thinks that if she_______a job she probably wouldn’t be able to see her friends very often.
A. has to get B. were to get C. had got D. could have got
( )2. We would not be able to walk if there _______no friction.
A. is B. are C. were D. will be
( )3. If we _______more freedom in choosing courses, we would have had more motivation to study.
A. were given B. could be given C. had been given D. had given
( )4. --- If he _______, he _______that food. ---Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately.
A. was warned; would not take B. had been warned; would not have taken
C. would be warned; had not taken D. would have been warned; had not taken
( )5. You didn’t let me drive. If we _______ in turn, you …so tired.
A. drove; didn’t get B. drove; wouldn’t get C. were driving; wouldn’t get D. had driven; wouldn’t have got
( )6. If the sun _______ rise in the west, my love for you would be unchanged.
A. should B. were C. were to D. shall
( )7. If he _______ hard in the past few years, things wouldn’t be going so smoothly.
A. had not been working B. has not been working C. was not working D. were not working
( )8. _______to me, he would not be in such trouble now.
A. If he listened B. If he would listen C. Should he listen D. Had he listened
( )9. _______it rain tomorrow, we would have to put off the visit to the Yangpu Bridge.
A. Were B. Should C. Would D. Will
( )10. What would have happened _______, as far as the river bank?
A. Bob had walked farther B. if Bob should walk farther
C. had Bob walked farther D. if Bob walked farther
( )11. If I hadn’t stood under the ladder to catch you when you fell, you _______ now.
A. couldn’t have smiled B. wouldn’t be smiling C. didn’t smile D. won’t smile
( )12. If only he _______quietly as the doctor instructed, he would not suffer so much now.
A. lies B. lay C. had lain D. should lie
( )13. It is hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I _______ in love, at the age of seven, with the Melinda Cox Library in my hometown.
A. wouldn’t have fallen B. had not fallen C. should fall D. were to fall
( )14. If it _______ for your help I really don’t know what I would have done.
A. had not been B. was not C. has not been D. were
( )15. I _______ you with the funds. Why didn’t you ask me?
A. should provide B. could provide C. had provided D. could have provided
( )16. _______ the English examination I would have gone to the concert last Sunday.
A. In spite of B. But for C. Because of D. As for
( )17. Without electricity human life _______quite different today.
A. is B. will be C. would have been D. would be
( )18. Without the air to hold some of the sun’s heat, the earth at night _______, too cold for us to live.
A. would be freezing cold B. will be freezing coldly
C. would be frozen cold D. can freeze coldly
( )19. ---Would you have called her up? ---Yes, but I _______ busy doing my homework.
A. was B. were C. am D. would be
( )20. ---Why didn’t Mary go? ---She _______ except she didn’t have time.
A. would have gone B. will go C. would go D. be going
( )21. But that he saw it, he _______ it.
A. can’t believe B. could not believe C. could not have believed D. did not believe
( )22. I regret not having taken your advice. Otherwise I _______ this mistake.
A. didn’t make B. would not make C. hadn’t made D. wouldn’t have made
( )23. They must have liked the apartment, or they _______ so long.
A. didn’t stay B. wouldn’t have stayed C. won’t stay D. wouldn’t stay
( )24. He hesitated for a moment before kicking the ball, otherwise he _______ a goal.
A. had scored B. scored C. would score D. would have scored
( )25. Supposing you _______ write, what would you do?
A. couldn’t B. can’t C. may not D. are unable
( )26. Look at the trouble I am in! If only I _______ your advice.
A. followed B. would follow C. had followed D. should follow
( )27. It is of the utmost importance that you _______ here on time.
A. be B. shall be C. are to be D. must be
( )28. It is strange that such a thing _______ in your school.
A. happens B. happened C. should happen D. had happened
( )29. It is decided that no smoking _______ in the classroom.
A. be allowed B. is allowed C. will be allowed D. should have been allowed
( )30. ---Do you have a dictionary? ---No, but I wish I _______.
A. have B. did C. do D. have had
( )31. Bob’s doctor suggests _______ for a few days.
A. that he is resting B. his resting C. him to rest D. that he rest
( )32. Tom insisted what he said _______ true and we insisted that he _______ and have a look.
A. be; should go B. should be; would go C. was; go D. was; would go
( )33. Jane’s pale face suggested that she _______ ill, and her parents suggested that she _______ a medical examination.
A. be; should have B. was; have C. should be; had D. was; has
( )34. ---Do you mind if I keep pets in this building? --- _______.
A. I’d rather you didn’t, actually B. Of course not, it’s not allowed here
C. Great! I love pets. D. No, you can’t
( )35. Our plan is that the production _______ at the rate of 10 percent a year.
A. rise B. rose C. would rise D. rised
( )36. ---Look! It looks as if it _______ going to rain. We must hurry. ---OK.
A. was B. is C. were D. will be
( )37. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west, so it seems as if the sun _______ round the earth.
A. be circling B. is circling C. circles D. were circling
( )38. He burned all the important documents for fear that they _______ into the enemy’s hands.
A. might fall B. would fall C. should fall D. will fall
( )39. Mrs. Bliss kept the door and the windows shut lest the noise outside _______ her son’s sleep.
A. would interfere with B. had interfered with C. interfered with D. should interfere with
( )40. We won’t give up _______ we should fail ten times.
A. even if B. since C. whether D. until
( )41. _______., the law regards him as criminal.
A. Being he friend or foe B. Be he friend or foe C. Was he friend or foe D. Whether friend or foe
( )42. It’s autumn, the time that farmers _______ their corn.
A. get in B. got in C. are getting in D. will get in
( )43. _______he try again, he might be successful.
A. Could B. Might C. Must D. Should
( )44. _______ , he would be surprised.
A. Were Tom to see you B. Were Tom see you C. If Tom is to see you D. If Tom has seen you
( )45. The workers are working hard to meet the request that the railway _______ to traffic on May 1.
A. is open B. will be open C. be open D. must open
( )46. We are all for Mary’s suggestion that the discussion _______.
A. is put off B. puts off C. to be put off D. be put off
( )47. He gave orders that the prisoners _______ free.
A. are set B. were set C. set D. be set
( )48. I think it is high time you _______ action.
A. take B. took C. are taking D. will take
( )49. His hair is very long. His parents wish he _______ it cut.
A. will have B. has C. had D. would have
( )50. If only it _______ now.
A. is snowing B. snows C. had snowed D. were snowing
( )51. But that I _______ too busy, I _______ him then.
A. was; would have helped B. am; would have helped
C. were; would help D. am; will help
( )52. If you were older, I _______you to go there yesterday.
A. will allow B. should allow C. would have allowed D. had allowed
( )53. He spoke in a quiet, distinct voice, as though his thought _______.
A. was far away B. had been far away C. were far away D. went far away
( )54. I would have come earlier, but I _______ that you were waiting for me.
A. didn’t know B. hadn’t know C. would have known D. haven’t known
( )55. He is working hard for fear that he _______.
A. fails B. failed C. would fail D. fail
( )56. It is really strange that the girl _______ so early.
A. has been married B. has married C. be married D. would marry
( )57. We _______ our lives had it not been for the policeman.
A. would have lost B. should lose C. might lose D. ought have lost
( )58. If the doctor had come earlier, the poor child _______.
A. would not have been lied there for two hours B. would not have laid there for two hours
C. would not have lied there for two hours D. would not have lain there for two hours
( )59. I would have told him the answer had it been possible but I _______ so busy then.
A. had been B. were C. was D. would be
( )60. You look so tired tonight. It is time you_______. (Choose two answers)
A. went to sleep B. went to bed C. should go to bed D. should go to sleep
( )61. I do not have a job. I would find one but I _______ no time.
A. had B. didn’t have C. had had D. have
( )62. The insects would devour all our crops and kill our flocks and herds, if _______ for the protection we get from insect-eating animals.
A. it is not B. it were not C. were it not D. they were not
( )63. “If I hadn’t practiced when I was younger,” the musician says, “I _______ able to play so well now.”
A. wouldn’t be B. won’t be C. wouldn’t have been D. couldn’t have been
( )64. It is imperative that you _______ there in person.
A. are B. were C. be D. will be
( )65. I’d just as soon _______ rudely to her.
A. that you won’t speak B. your not speaking C. you not speak D. you didn’t speak
( )66. What do you think of his proposal that improvements _______ in the old type of vacuum cleaner?
A. be made B. will be made C. would be made D. will have to be made
( )67. The doctor’s advice is that the patient _______ about his real physical condition.
A. be not told B. not be told C. will not be told D. must not be told
( )68. All science students, _______, should have a good foundatin in basic sciences.
A. whether they are future physcists and chemists B. they ae future physicists of chemists
C. they should be future physicists of chemists D. be they future physicists or chemists
( )69. _______for the traffic jam, I should have covered fifty miles.
A. Had it been B. Had it not been C. It had not been D. It not had been
( )70. Tom would buy that bicycle but he _______no money.
A. had B. has C. had had D. has had
( )71. If only we _______ as we were told! This would never have happened.
A. had done B. would do C. do D. did
( )72. The Jade Emperor ordered that the Monkey King _______ right away.
A. would be arrested B. must be arrested C. be arrested D. had to be arrested
( )73. Don't touch the sleeping tiger. If he woke up, he _______ you.
A. would come to B. would come at C. would have come toward D. will come to
( )74. How I wish I _______ to repair the watch! I only made it worse.
A. had tried B. hadn't tried C. have tried D. didn't try
( )75. If he _______ to the teacher attentively, he _______ the answer to the problem now.
A. had listened, would have known B. listened, would know
C. listened, would have known D. had listened, would know
( )76. But for the party, he _______ of hunger 30 years ago.
A. would have died B. would die C. must have died D. must die
( )77. If it _______ another ten minutes, the game would have been called off.
A. had rained B. would had rained C. have seen D. did see
( )78. If I _______ so busy, I _______ the lecture that day.
A. were not be/ should attend B. should not/ should have attend
C. was not/ would attend D. had not been/ would have attended
( )79. If the doctor had been available, the child _______.
A. would not die B. would not have died C. could not die D. could not have died
( )80. I recommended that the student _______ his composition as soon as possible.
A. finishing writing B. should finish the writing C. finish writing D . finished writing


虚拟语气知识点巩固、助记性精练答案

01.BCCBD 06. CADBC 11. BCBAD 16. BDAAA
21. CDBDA 26. CACAB 31. DCBAA 36. BDCDA
41. BBDAC 46. DDBCD 51. ACBAD 56. CADCBC
61. DBACD 66. ABDBB 71. ACBBD 76. AADDC


 本文转载自岸江的新浪博客。http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_53ca7b1b0102e5jv.html
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