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素心守拙

那怕老态龙钟时,也愿保持一颗天真的心。

 
 
 

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情态动词讲练(一)  

2012-02-23 21:35:37|  分类: 英语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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must 的用法

Ⅰ  must“必须,一定要”表示说话人的主观看法。

1 可用于肯定句、否定句或疑问句,用于否定句时,mustn’t的意思是“一定不要”“不能”"不准",而不表示“不必”。如:

(1)You must finish it today. 你一定要在今天完成它。

(2)You must see the doctor. 你一定要看医生。

(3) We mustn't think only of ourselves. 我们可不能只考虑自己

2   在回答must引起的问句时,肯定回答,用must,否定回答用,needn't 或者don't have to.

Must I  go so soon?

yes ,you must.(No,you needn't.No,you don't have to.)

 3   其后可接被动结构或进行形式:

   (1)   Something must be done to stop it. 必须采取措施来阻止它。

    (2)  I think I must be going. I think I must be going. 我想我得走了

Ⅱ   表示推测。意为“准是”、“一定是”

    1    通常只用于肯定句,在否定句或疑问句用 can 代之:

(1) It must be true. 那一定是真的。 . 比较:Can it be true?  那可能是真的吗? / It can't be true. 那不可能是真的。

(2) 后接动词原形,表示对现在情况的推测:

 He must be wrong. 他一定错了。

The man must have a lot of money. 这个人一定有不少钱。

注:must 表示对现在情况的推测后接动词原形时,该动词通常为状态动词(如 be, have, know 等),若为动作动词,通常要转换其它说法。“他一定会赢”,通常不说He must win,可说He is sure to win。(He must win的意思是“他必须要赢”)

 (3) 其后可接进行式或完成进行式,用以谈论一个正在进行的动作:

He must be writing a letter to his girl friend. 他一定在给他女朋友写信。

Someone must have been smoking here.一定有人一直在这里抽烟。

(4)  must have done,用来谈论已发生的情况:

He must have arrived already.他一定已经到了。

I didn't hear the phone. I must have been asleep. 我没有听到电话铃,我一定是睡着了。

4. 表示“非要,偏要”有时表示不巧,有时表示固执,通常都是指令人不快的事:

Must you make so much noise? 你就非得弄出这么大的声音吗?

Why must you always interrupt me? 你为什么硬是老要打断我?

We were ready to leave, but the baby must catch cold.  我们刚准备好要走, 可孩子偏偏得了感冒。

Just when I was busy, the neighbor must come and chatter. 正当我忙碌的时候,邻居偏偏过来聊天。正当我忙碌的时候,邻居偏偏过来聊天。

5  must 和 have to 的区别

must 表示说话人的主观看法,“必须,一定要”,have to表示客观需要“不得不”

All visiters must report to reception    所有来宾必须到接待处报道。

He had to pay off the  debt.他不得不还清债务。

配套练习:

     1  .(2011全国卷II,8)
If you ______ smoke, please go outside.
A. can B. should C. must D. may

答案 C

解析:考查情态动词的用法。句意为“如果你非得要抽烟,请到外面去抽。”must (表示主张)一定要,坚持要。根据后一句please go outside的要求,选C。

2   .(2011福建卷,25)
——Shall I inform him of the change of the schedule right now?
——I am afraid you ______, in case he comes late for the meeting .
A.will B.must C.may D.can

答案 B

解析:考查情态动词的用法。句意为“——需要我现在就通知他计划有变吗?——恐怕你得这样做,以防他开会迟到。”must (表示必要、命令或强制)必须,得。根据后半句,选B。

3   .(2011辽宁卷,21)
If you ______ go, at least wait until the storm is over.
A. can B. may C. must D. will

答案 C

解析:考查情态动词的用法。句意为“如果你非得走话,至少也要等到这暴风雨过去后。”can可以,能够;may 可能,许可;must(表示主张)一定要,坚持要;will将要,愿意。根据后句的劝告,选C。

4    (2010安徽32)
Jack described his father, who ______ a brave boy many years ago, as a strong–willed man
A. would be B. would have been C. must be D. must have been

答案:D.

考点:本题考查情态动词推测用法。
解析:句意为“杰克把他的父亲描述为一个意志坚强的人,他的父亲多年前肯定很勇敢。”
用must have been表示对过去事情的肯定推测。

5   (2010江西23)
I have told you the truth. ______ I keep repeating it?
A Must B Can C May D Will

答案:A

考点:考察情态动词的用法。
解析: must 必须, 一定 can 可以, 能够 may 也许 will 意愿, 倾向性动作, 前半句说我
告诉你事实了, 这里用的是现在完成时, 表示过去的动作对现在造成了影响, 既然我已经
说了, 我还必须重复一遍吗?

6 (2010辽宁26)
Doctors say that exercise is important for health, but it _______ be regular exercise.
A.can B.will C.must D.may

答案:C

句意:医生说锻炼对身体重要,但是必须是有规律的锻炼。
解析:考查情态动词。Can一般表示“可能,或能力”;will表示“意志”;may表示“许可,
可能”;must表示“必须”。

7    (2010北京23)
---Good morning. I've got an appointment with Miss Smith in the Personnel
Department.
--Ah, good morning. You ______ be Mrs. Peters.
A. might B. must C. would D. can

答案:B

考点:本题考查情态动词在语境中的运用。
解析:第一个说话人说和史密斯小姐有约,那下面的人就回应说,"那您一定就是Mrs.
Peters了"因此排除A,C.D

8   (2010浙江17)
“You ______ have a wrong number,” she said. “There’s no one of that name here.”
A. need B. can
C. must D. would

答案:C

9 (09湖南30)
— It’s the office! So you ______ know eating is not allowed here.
— Oh, sorry.
A. must B. will C. may D. need

答案A

解析 句意为:这是办公室!因此你必须知道吃的不允许带到这里。must表示“绝不”的意思

10   (09上海27)
It _____ have been Tom that parked the car here, as he is the only one with a car.
A. may B. can C. must D. should

答案 C

11  (09重庆32)
—Hi, Tom. Any idea where Jane is?
—She _____ in the classroom. I saw her there just now.
A. shall be B. should have been C. must be D. might have been

答案C

12  .(07上海29)
—Guess what? I have got A for my term paper.
—Great!You ______ read widely and put a lot of work into it.
A.must B.should C.must have D.should have

答案 C

解析 由“have got A”可知是对过去发生事情的推测,故用“情态动词+have done”结构。must have done表示“必定做过某事”,符合题意。

13 .(07安徽23)
The teacher ______ have thought Johnson was worth it or she wouldn’t have wasted time on him, I suppose.
A.should B.can C.would D.must

答案 D

解析 must have done表示对过去所做事情的肯定判断,表示“一定……”。

14 .(06浙江19)
— Could I have a word with you,mum?
— Oh dear,if you ______.
A.can B.must C.may D.should

答案 B

解析 考查情态动词的用法。句意为:妈妈,我可以和你说句话吗?”“噢,亲爱的,如果你非要说的话。”must表示必须要做的事。

15 .(05全国Ⅰ26)
Tom,you ______ leave all your clothes on the floor like this!
A.wouldn’t B.mustn’t C.needn’t D.may not

答案 B

解析 考查情态动词。wouldn’t用以提示客气的请求;mustn’t表示禁止,不允许;needn’t表示没必要;may not表示不可以。根据语境要求Tom不许把衣服放在地板上。

16  .(05全国Ⅲ19)
John,look at the time. ______ you play the piano at such a late hour?
A.Must B.Can C.May D.Need

答案 A

解析 must在此处显示出说话人的不快,有“难道非要”的意思。

17  .(05北京26)
He ______ have completed his work;otherwise,he wouldn’t be enjoying himself by the seaside.
A.should B.mustC.wouldn’t D.can’t

答案 B

解析 考查情态动词表猜测的用法。由句意 “他一定是已经完成工作了;否则,他就不会在海边玩得那么高兴。”可知是对过去发生事情的肯定推测。

18 .(07江苏22)
—She looks very happy.She ______ have passed the exam.
—I guess so.It’s not difficult after all.
A.should B.could C.must D.might

答案 C

解析 must have passed the exam肯定是通过考试了,由前句中的“happy”和下句中的“not difficult after all”
可以推知。

19  .(06广东22)
— Must he come to sign this paper himself?
— Yes,he ______.
A.need B.mustC.may D.will

答案 B

解析 表示要求时,肯定回答用must, 否定用needn’t。

20   .(05重庆33)
I was on the highway when this car went past followed by a police car.They ______ at least 150 kilometers an hour.
A.should have been doing B.must have been doing 
C.could have done  D.would have done

答案 B

解析 must have done用于肯定句中,表示对过去事情的推测,意为“想必是,一定是”。否定句、疑问句中对过去情况的推测,要用can/could have done的形式。

21 .(05江西22)
—Tom is never late for work.Why is he absent today?
—Something ______ to him.
A.must happen B.should have happened
C.could have happened D.must have happened

答案 D

解析 本题考查情态动词的用法。must have done的意思是“一定发生了某事”。由对话所提供的情景可知:汤姆从不迟到,所以他“一定有事”。因此D项正确。

.(04上海28)
Children under 12 years of age in that country ______ be under adnlt’s supervision when in a public library.
A. must B.may C.can D.need

答案 A

解析 句意为:未满12岁的儿童必须在成人的监督下呆在图书馆。表示“必须”时用must侧重主观,have to侧重客观。

(素心守拙整理)

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