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那怕老态龙钟时,也愿保持一颗天真的心。

 
 
 

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直接引语改为间接引语“四要素” (江西龙南 廖添发)  

2011-09-13 07:56:02|  分类: 英语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 直接引述别人的原话叫直接引语;用自己的话转述别人的话,叫间接引语。间接引语的实质就是宾语从句。直接引语变为间接引语时应注意以下四个问题。

一. 连词的选择
1. 直接引语为陈述句时,间接引语用that连接(that可以省略)。
He says, “I will have a try.” →He says(that)he will have a try.
2. 直接引语为一般疑问句、选择疑问句或反意疑问句时,间接引语用if/whether连接。
He asked me, “Have you finished you work?” →He asked me if/whether I had finished my work.
3. 直接引语为特殊疑问句时,间接引语由原句中的特殊疑问词连接。注意:此时的间接引语已变成由特殊疑问词引导的宾语从句,故从句应用陈述语序。
Sue asked me, “Where do you live?” →Sue asked me where I lived.
4. 直接引语为祈使句时,间接引语则变成一个不定式短语(否定式则在其前加not),同时根据语气选用适当的谓语动词,如:ask,tell,order等。
He said to me, “Pass me the ruler, please.” →He asked me to pass him the ruler.
5. 直接引语为感叹句时,间接引语由原句中的what/how连接,语序不变。
John said, “What a beautiful day it is!” →John said what a beautiful day it was.

二. 时态的变化
当引述动词(即引起间接引语的动词)为过去时态时,间接引语的时态一般往前推一步。时态变化和举例如下:
一般现在时→一般过去时
现在进行时→过去进行时
一般将来时→过去将来时
过去时/现在完成时/过去完成时→过去完成时
Li Lei said, “I’m sure about it.” →Li Lei said that he was sure about it .
Helen said, “I’ve finished writing the report.” →Helen said that she had finished writing the report.
注意:表示不变的真理和事实或引语中有时间状语时,间接引语中的动词时态不变。
Mr. Brown said to us, “The earth goes around the sun.” →Mr. brown told us that the earth goes around the sun.
The Smiths said, “We came in 1998.” →The Smiths said that they came in 1998.

三. 指示代词、时间/地点状语和方向动词的变化



直接引语

间接引语

直接引语

间接引语

now

→then

last week

→the week before

today

→that day

next week

→the next week

yesterday

→the day before

here

→there

tomorrow

→the next day

this

→that

ago

→before

these

→those

this week

→that week

come

→go


Sam said to me, “Come to my house tomorrow.” →Sam asked me to go to his house the next day.
Read said to me, “We visited the Great Wall last week.” →Read told me that they had visited the Great Wall the week before.

四. 语态的变化
直接引语改为间接引语,时态须作相应变化,但语态不变。
The shopkeeper said, “This book has been sold out.” →The shopkeeper said(that)that book had been sold out.

 

 

 
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