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从近年高考英语试题透析where引导的定语从句  

2011-04-26 21:06:17|  分类: 英语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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定语从句是高考英语考查的重点、难点和热点,其中由where引导的定语从句这一知识点更是在每年各省市的高考英语试卷中都占有一定数量的比重。它不仅出现在单选试题中,而且在阅读理解中也有大量由where引导的定语从句这一结构的句子。为帮助学生更进一步理解和掌握where引导的定语从句这一知识要点,现结合近年来高考英语试题,对其做一分析和归纳。
    一、先行词(表示具体地点的名词)+关系副词(where)+定语从句
    1. Stephen Hawking believes that the earth is unlikely to be the only planet ___ life has developed gradually. 
(2010福建卷)
    A. that        B. where
    C. which        D. whose
    解析:先行词为planet,表示地点,从句中的动词develop为不及物动词,从句不缺少成分,故排除选项中的关系代词that, which, whose,选择where在从句中作状语。
    2. — Where did you get to know her?
— It was on the farm ___ we worked.   (2007山东卷)
    A. that        B. there
    C. which        D. where 
    解析:解答此题的关键是,勿把答句误认为是强调句。it指的是“认识她的那个地方”,先行词为the farm,work是不及物动词,不需要宾语,故选择where在从句中作状语。
    3. Some pre-school children go to a day-care center, ___ they learn simple games and songs.  (2007全国卷Ⅰ)
    A. then        B. there
    C. while        D. where
    解析:先行词为a day-care center,表地点,选择where在从句中作地点状语。
    [小结]
    由上述三个例句说明:做好此类结构的题目,首先要确定从句中的谓语动词是不是不及物动词,其次看先行词是不是表地点的名词。如果具备这两点:从句中的谓语动词是不及物动词,先行词又是表地点的名词,毫无疑问应用关系副词where。这类题目在高考中属于比较容易的类型,考生易于掌握。
    但在2010年高考英语天津卷中,在对这一句子结构的考查形式上增加了难度,请看下题:
    Can you believe I had to pay 30 dollars for a haircut ?
    You should try the barber’s ___ I go. It’s only 15.    (2010天津卷)
    A. as        B. which
    C. where        D. that   
    解析:从句中的go是不及物动词,从句不缺少成分,所以排除选项中的关系代词as, which, that。the barber’s = the barber’s house 表地点,故应选择where在从句中作状语。
    值得注意的是:
    1. 先行词虽然是表地点的名词,但引导定语从句的关系词不一定用where。如:
    York, ___ last year,is a nice old city.  (2003北京卷)
    A. that I visited
    B. which I visited
    C. where I visited
    D. in which I visited
    解析:先行词为York,地点名词,从句中谓语动词visit是及物动词,用关系代词作从句的宾语成分,故应选B. which I visited。
    2. 先行词为地点名词,且在从句中作状语成分,关系词也可以用in / at /on which替代。in用于某一空间范围,at用于平面上的某一点,有时也可以用on。如:
    (1) The place ___ the bridge is supposed to be built should be ___ the cross-river traffic is the heaviest.
(2005江苏卷)
    A. which; where
    B. at which; which
    C. at which; where
    D. which; in which
    解析:第一个空格后的定语从句不缺少成分,先行词又是地点名词place,在从句中作状语,故可填at which或where。第二个空格后的句子也不缺少成分,由题意可知,应用where引导表语从句,故应选C. at which; where。
    (2) Is this the house ___ Shakespeare was born?   (1988全国卷)
    A. at where        B. which
    C. in which        D. at which
    解析:先行词the house,表空间范围的地点名词,从句中不缺少成分,应用关系副词where或in which作状语,故应选C. in which。
    3. 先行词为地点名词,从句中的介词有时不可省略。如:
    The house I grew up ___ has been taken down and replaced by an office building.   (2009江西卷)
    A. in it            B. in
    C. in that            D. in which
    解析:the house后面I grew up这个句子是定语从句,grew up是不及物动词,而the house在从句中作宾语,显然需要加介词,构成The house (which / that) I grew up in...的结构,而which / that关系代词可以省略,故选B. in。
    二、先行词(表示家具、衣物、工具等名词)+关系副词(where)+定语从句
    1. If a shop has chairs ___ women can park their men, women will spend more time in the shop.  (2005,上海卷)
    A. that            B. which
    C. when            D. where
    解析:先行词为chairs,是表示具体事物的名词,又知定语从句中不缺少成分。根据句意可把 chairs看作表地点的名词,在从句中作状语,故选D. where。
    2. There were dirty marks on her trousers ___ she had wiped her hands.
(2004四川卷)
    A. where            B. which
    C. when            D. that
    解析:由题意可知先行词应为trousers,而不是marks。从句中不缺少成分,故排除选项中的关系代词which, that,而应选择where在从句中作状语。
    (小结略)
    三、先行词(抽象名词)+关系副词(where)+定语从句
    1. I can think of many cases ___ students obviously knew a lot of English words and expressions but couldn’t write a good essay.  (2003上海卷)
    A. why            B. which
    C. as            D. where   
    解析:先行词为case,属抽象名词,且从句中不缺少成分,故排除选项中的关系代词which和as,同时主句和从句不是因果关系,可排除选项A,正确答案应为D. where。
    2. It’s helpful to put children in a situation ___ they can see themselves differently.     (2009福建卷)
    A. that            B. when
    C. which            D. where
    解析:本句先行词为situation,译作“环境,境遇”,用于表示地点的抽象名词,且从句中不缺少成分,故应选D. where。 
    3. We’re just trying to reach a point ___ both sides will sit down together and talk.     (2006山东卷)
    A. where            B. that
    C. when            D. which 
    解析:先行词为point,可译作“目标,目的”,属表地点的抽象名词,从句中不缺少成分,故应选A. where。
    4. Those successful deaf dancers think that dancing is an activity ___ sight matters more than hearing.
(2007天津卷)
    A. when            B. whose
    C. which            D. where
    解析:先行词为activity,属表示地点的抽象名词,而从句中的谓词动词matter为不及物动词,不需要宾语,故应选D. where。
    5. Many people who had seen the film were afraid to go to the forest when they remembered the scenes ___ people were eaten by the tiger.  (2005广东卷)
    A. in which        B. by which
    C. which            D. that
    解析:先行词为scene,属于表地点的抽象名词,从句为被动语态,且不缺少成分,故选A. in which。
    6. I’ll give you my friend’s home address, ___ I can be reached most evenings.   (2008北京卷)
    A. which            B. when
    C. whom            D. where
    解析:先行词为address,属表地点的抽象名词,且从句中不缺少成分,故应选D. where。
    7. All the neighbors admire this family, ___ the parents are treating their child like a friend.  (2008安徽卷)
    A. why            B. where
    C. which            D. that   
    解析:先行词为family,属表地点的抽象名词,且从句中不缺少成分,故选B. where。
    8. I work in a business ___ almost everyone is waiting for a great chance.
(2004湖南卷)
    A. how            B. which
    C. where            D. that

解析:先行词为business,属表地点的抽象名词,且从句中不缺少成分,故选C. where。
    9. — What do you think of teaching, Bob ?
— I find it fun and challenging. It is a job ___ you are doing something serious but interesting.  (2009北京卷)
    A. where            B. which
    C. when            D. that
    解析:先行词为job,属表地点的抽象名词,且从句中不缺少成分,故选A. where。
    10. ... you are considering a relaxing holiday where the scenery is breathtaking. ...
 (2005广东卷,阅读理解E篇)
    解析:先行词为holiday,属表地点的抽象名词,且后面从句不缺少成分,故用where引导。
    11. ... Your yard and house are your territory where only your family and friends are welcome. ...
(2005湖北卷,阅读理解A篇)
    解析:先行词为territory,属表地点的抽象名词,且从句不缺少成分,故用关系副词where。
    12. ... You, the customer, must pay:    A reasonable charge for a service, where no price has been fixed in advance. ...
(2005湖北卷,阅读理解C篇)
    解析:先行词为service,属表地点的抽象名词,且从句中不缺少成分,先行词在从句中作状语,故用关系副词where。
    13. ... The animal is, in fact, playing a very dangerous game with its environment, a game in which it must make decisions — a matter of life or death. ...
(2005湖北卷,阅读理解E篇)
    解析:a game是前面a very dangerous game的同位语,做先行词,是表地点的抽象名词,从句中没有缺少成分,故用in which(where)引导从句。
    [小结]
    近些年高
考试题考查where / in which引导的定语从句,大多数采用先行词为抽象名词或用表示地点名词的特殊形式,以此增加考题的难度。例11,12,13是2005年高考英语湖北卷阅读理解中的题目,三篇短文就有三个这样难度较高的定语从句,可见掌握好定语从句是何等重要。对于上述例题中case, situation, point, activity, scene, address, family, business, job, holiday, territory, service,game等词做先行词,考查得比较频繁。另外,还要注意下面一些词汇:position, condition, environment, atmosphere, surroundings等,如果先行词为以上这些词,从句中又不缺少成分,也常常用where / in which引导定语从句。
    注意:遇到上述词汇做先行词,但如果从句中的谓语动词是及物动词或相当于及物动词的短语,就不用where / in which来引导从句。如:
    — Do you have anything to say for yourselves ?
    — Yes, there’s one point ___ we must insist on. (2006江西卷)
    A. why            B. where
    C. how            D. /
解析:先行词为point,而从句中的谓语动词insist on需要宾语,故应选择关系代词,但关系代词可以省略,故选D. /。
    四、先行词(抽象名词或地点名词)+隔离成分+关系副词+定语从句。
    1. The girl arranged to have piano lessons at the training centre with her sister ___ she would stay for an hour.   (2010江西卷)
    A. where            B. who
    C. which            D. what
    解析:从句中的谓词动词stay为不及物动词,且从句中不缺成分,应选择关系副词where在从句中作状语。在本题中,隔离成分为介词短语with her sister,先行词为the training centre。
    2. I have reached a point in my life ___ I am supposed to make decisions of my own.   (2009浙江卷)
    A. which            B. where
    C. how            D. why   
    解析:从句中不缺少成分,故排除关系代词which。how不能引导定语从句。此题的先行词应为point,表地点,隔离成分in my life修饰point作定语,应选择where在从句中作状语。
    3. Later,in this chapter cases will be introduced to readers ___ consumer complaints have resulted in changes in the law.     (2008江西卷)
    A. where            B. when
    C. who            D. which
    解析:chapter如果为先行词,结合从句的句意去分析,句意前后不衔接,所以先行词应为case,抽象名词表地点。本题由于定语从句较长,而主句谓语较短,因此把从句置后以平衡整个句子,隔离成分为谓语部分will be introduced to readers。
    [小结]
    由以上三道例题可看出,做好此类结构的题目,首先要看从句中是否缺少成分,若没有主、谓、宾(主、系、表)等成分的残缺,就断定用关系副词。其次,由从句表达的句意和前面主句中出现的一个或多个名词挂钩,借以确定先行词是否是表示地点的名词,从而选择是否应用关系副词where。转贴于 中国论文下载中心 http://www.studa.net

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