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语法专题---倒装  

2010-12-14 21:14:21|  分类: 英语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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在英语中,主语和谓语的语序通常的主语在前,谓语在后。但有时为了强调某一部分,或适应一定的语法结构的需要,而把谓语的全部或一部分提到主语的前面,这种情况叫“倒装”(Inversion)。此结构通常只用与一般现在时和一般过去时
倒装的分类
(一)、 全部倒装--主语与谓语动词倒装
结构:谓语动词+主语
Down fell the rain.
(二)、 部分倒装--主语与助动词/情态动词/系动词倒装
结构:助动词/情态动词/系动词+主语+谓语动词
Never have I heard such a thing.
(三)、形式倒装
形式上的倒装在语法上称为前置。它的特点是,只把强调的内容提至句首,主谓并不倒装。
结构:强调的内容+主语+谓语动词
What an interesting talk they had!
The more you listen to English, the easier it becomes.
(一)全部倒装
1. There be 句型(be可换成 live, stand, lie, come, exist, seem, appear 等).
There are so many cars coming and going on the road.
There still exist some problems.
句型 There is no need to do…
There is no doubt that…
There is no knowing\\ telling …
2. 在here, there, now, then, thus引导的句子里, 要全部倒装
Here comes your head teacher.

Here he comes.主语是人称代词不用倒装
3.当in, out, down, up, over, away, off, back等副词作状语置于句首时,谓语常用动词有come, go, rush, be, lie, run,等不及物动词。
Up flew the bird.
Out rushed the students.
4.表地点的介词状语位于句首
Under the tree __ sits a beautiful girl, reading. ___
South of the city ___ lies a paper-making plant. ____
Eventually they arrived at a cave, in front of which __ stood a tree. __
5.表语提前
1)表语为介词短语
Among the goods are Christmas trees, flowers, candles and toys.
2)表语为形容词
Present at the meeting were Professor White and many other guests.
3)表语为过去分词
Seated on the ground are a group of young people.
4)表语为进行时态中的现在分词
Lying on the floor was a boy.
Standing beside the desk was a teacher.
Growing along the road are some wild flowers.
6. Such 置于句首时,such和be连用作表语,也常用倒装语序,如:
Such are the facts.
Such a great scientist is Yuan Longping.
此句型中的such 多被认为是表语,所以such后的be动词应与其后的“真正的主语”保持一致。如:
Such are the facts; no one can deny them.
(二)部分倒装
把be/助动词/情态动词 提前到主语的前面
Is am are was were
do does did
can could would may will might 等
1.only所修饰的副词、介词短语或状语从句放在句首时, 要进行部分倒装,如:
Only then did I realize the importance of learning English.
Only in this way can you hope to improve the situation there.
Only after he came back was I able to see him.
注:only修饰主语,仍用自然语序,如:
Only socialism can save China.
使用特点:
(1)在部分倒装句中,如果谓语部分无助动词,则须找助动词来“帮助”它构成倒装句。如:
(F) Only after the war learned he the sad news.
(T) Only after the war did he learn the sad news.
(2) only修饰状语从句时,从句不可倒装。如:
(F) Only when did he return did we find our the truth.
(T) Only when he returned did we find our the truth.

(3)Only 修饰主语时,句子不可倒装。如:
(F) Only can he answer the question.
(T) Only he can answer the question.
2. 否定副词 never ,nor, not, seldom, hardly, little, scarcely, rarely nowhere及表否定意义的介词短语 by no means, at no time, under/in no circumstances, in no case, on no condition等置于句首时 。
如:
I have never seen such a beautiful place.
Never have I seen such a beautiful place.
Not a single mistake did he make= He didn’t make a single mistake
Hardly do I think it possible to finish the job before dark
=I hardly think it possible to finish the job before dark.
3、六个重要的固定句型
(1)… so+be/助动词/情态动词+主语 “……也是如此”
They love having lots of friends; so do I
使用特点:
A. 此句型也可写成“it is the same with….”, 或“so it is with….”.如:
They love having lots of friends; it is the same with those with disabilities/so it is with those with disabilities.
B.如果句意不是 “……也是如此 ”,而仅是对前面内容的肯定或附和(此时的so=indeed),那么,句子不可使用倒装。试比较:
a. I was afraid (句中的I指的是a)
b. So was I (I 指的是b, 此句意为:I was afraid, too)
a. I was afraid (I指的是a)
b. So you were (you 指的也是a。此句意为: Indeed you were afraid.)
(2) …neither (或nor)+ be/助动词/情态动词+主语,“…….也不这样”
Lily can’t ride a bicycle; neither (或nor)can Lucy.
使用特点:
A.此句型也可写成“it is the same with…”,或“so it is with…”
Lily can’t ride; it is the same with Lucy/ so it is with Lucy.
B.此句型中的neither (或nor)不可用so….not 替代,但可用not…either改写。如:
(F) I have never been abroad. So hasn’t he
(T) I have never been abroad. Neither/ Nor has he.
(T) I have never been abroad. He has never/not been abroad, either.
(3)由so\\such...that...引导的表示程度的状语从句,将其放于句首表示强调
So +adj./adv. ….that….“ 如此…..以至于…..”。
So clearly does he speak English that he can always make himself understood.
使用特点:
在这个句型中,so 后面的句子要倒装,而that引导的句子不倒装。
(4)Neither…., nor….. “…..不…., …..也不…..”。
Neither do I know it, nor do I care about it.
由于neither 和nor 都是否定词,所以它们后面分句均需倒装。
此类倒装用于重复前句部分内容
前句是肯定句用SO 某人/某事也是
前句是否定句用neither ,nor 某人/某事也不是
倒装句中的谓语应与前句的谓语时态形态一致
(5)Not only…., but also “不仅…..而且….”。
Not only will help be given to people to find jobs, but also medical treatment will be provided for people who need it .
此句型也可写成Not only…but ….或Not only….but….as well的形式,但but (also)引导的句子必须用正常语序。
(6)Not until…. “直到…..才……”。
Not until he returned did we have supper.
使用特点:
A.这句话可以改写成:We didn’t have supper until he returned. 再如:
Not until 4:00 in the morning can he fall asleep.
=He can’t fall asleep until 4:00 in the morning.
B.如果not until 引导的是句子,until从句的主谓不可倒装,只是主句需要倒装。
4、If 虚拟条件从句中. if省略时,had/ were/should等要与主语倒装。从句有(were/should/had)
(1)If I were you, I would work hard.
Were I you, I would work hard.
(2) If it should rain tomorrow, we would put off our meeting.
Should it rain tomorrow, we would put off our meeting.
(3)If he had followed my advice, he would have succeeded.
Had he followed my advice, he would have succeeded.
If it were not for his teacher’s help, he would never graduate from this high school.
Were it not for his teacher’s help, he would never graduate from this high school.
注意:我们可以说Were it not...或者Had it not been..., 但不可以说Weren’ t it... 或者hadn’t it been...
5.在 hardly/scarcely/…when; no sooner…than; not only … but also;so...that; such…that 的倒装句中,前倒后不倒.
hardly/scarcely/ no sooner后句子的谓语用had done, when/than后句子的谓语用一般过去时
(1) Hardly / Scarcely had he fallen asleep when a loud knock at the door awaked him.
(2) No sooner had I reached the station than train moved.
(3) Not only is he interested in football but also he plays it well.
So hard does he work that he has made great progress in English.
6.在以often, always, once, many a time, now and then,等作状语的频度副词位于句首时。
Often did I speak of him before.
Many a time has he helped me with my experiment.
(三)形式倒装
形式上的倒装在语法上称为前置。它的特点是,只把强调的内容提至句首,主谓并不倒装。这样的结构非常多,但有几个重要的句型需要特别注意:
1、感叹句
What an interesting talk they had!
How interesting their talk is !
使用特点:
对名词(或中心词是名词)感叹时,用what引导;对形容词或副词感叹时,用how引导。
2、the more…..the more….句型
The more you listen to English, the easier it becomes.
使用特点:
(1)此句型中的more代表的是形容词或副词的比较级,要灵活使用。
The harder you work, the greater progress you will make.
(2)此句型中的第一个the more 引导的部分相当于一个条件状语从句;第二个the more引导的部分相当于一个主句。所以,上面例句的意思实质上就是: If you work harder, you will make greater progress.
3、whatever/however引导的让步状语从句
However difficult the problem may be, we must work it out this evening.
使用特点:
Whatever 后面常接名词;用however时常构成以下形式:
However+形容词/副词+主语+…..
Whatever reasons you have, you should carry out your promise.
4、as, though引导让步状语从句时采用倒装形式的情况
名词\\形容词\\副词\\分词+as\\though+主语+其他
动词原形+as/though+主语+情态动词/助动词
(1)表语的倒装
Tired as/though he was, he still went on with his work.
Strange as/ though it seems, it is true
Exhausted as/ though she was, she wasn’t able to sleep.
Child as he is, he has to make a living
注意:从句的表语是名词,其名词前不加任何冠词
(2)谓语动词的倒装
Try as he might, he didn’t pass the exam.
Search as they would here and there, they could find nothing in the room.
(3) 状语的倒装
Much as he likes the bike, he doesn’t want to buy it .
Hard as I studied, I could not catch up with them.
(4)分词的倒装
Surrounded though he was by the enemy, he was not afraid.
注意:如果是单数名词或形容词的最高级作表语,不再用冠词。如:
Youngest as he is in our class, he speaks English the best.
5、 祝愿语
May you succeed!
May you be happy!
May peace return to the troubled land!
Long live the People’s Republic of China!
其他情况
直接引语的全部或一部分放在句首时,主句中的主谓也常直接倒装。
“Very well,” said the French student.
“Bring me two eggs and a cup of tea, please.” added the customer.

·




高中英语倒装句讲解 倒装句分为全部倒装和部分倒装,看看一下内容,你就可以学习这些内容了。还有练习哦 14.1 倒装句之全部倒装   全部倒装是只将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。此结构通常只用于一般现在时和一般过去时。常见的结构有:  1) here, there, now, then, thus等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用be, come, go, lie, run等表示来去或状态的动词。例如:    Then came the chairman. 那时总裁来了。    Here is your letter. 你的信。  2) 表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词。例如:    Out rushed a missile from under the bomber. 轰炸机肚底下窜出一枚导弹。    Ahead sat an old woman. 前面坐着一个老妪。   注意:上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词,如果主语是人称代词则不能完全倒装。例如: Here he comes. 他来了。     Away they went. 他们走开了。 14.2 倒装句之部分倒装 部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态倒装至主语之前。如果句子的谓语没有助动词或情态动词,则需添加助动词do, does或did,并将其置于主语之前。  1. 句首为否定或半否定的词语,如no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time, in no way, not until… 等。例如:    Never have I seen such a performance. 从未见过如此糟糕的表演。    Nowhere will you find the answer to this question. 无论如何你不会找到这个问题的答案的。    Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room. 母亲一直到孩子入睡后离开房间。   当Not until引出主从复合句,主句倒装,从句不倒装。注意: 如否定词不在句首不倒装。例如:    I have never seen such a performance.    The mother didn\'t leave the room until the child fell asleep. 典型例题   1) Why can\'t I smoke here?    At no time___ in the meeting-room A. is smoking permitted  B. smoking is permitted C. smoking is it permitted D. does smoking permit 答案A. 这是一个倒装问题。当否定词语置于句首以表示强调时,其句中的主谓须用倒装结构。这些否定词包括no, little, hardly, seldom, never, not only, not until等。本题的正常语序是 Smoking is permitted in the meeting-room at no time. 2) Not until the early years of the 19th century ___ what heat is.    A. man did know  B. man know  C. didn\'t man know  D. did man know   答案D.  看到Not until…的句型,我们知道为一倒装句,答案在C,D 中选一个。   改写为正常语序为,Man did not know what heat is until the early years of the 19th. 现在将not提前,后面就不能再用否定了,否则意思就变了。 14.3 以否定词开头作部分倒装 如 Not only…but also, Hardly/Scarcely…when, No sooner… than等,要倒装。例如:   Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender. 他没有收下礼物,还狠狠批评了送礼的人。   Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her. 她刚出门,就有个学生来访。   No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her. 她刚出门,就有个学生来访。 典型例题 No sooner___ than it began to rain heavily. A. the game began      B. has the game begun C. did the game begin    D. had the game begun 答案D. 以具有否定意义的副词放在句首时,一般采用倒装句(谓语前置)。这类表示否定意义的词有never, seldom, scarcely, little, few, not, hardly, 以及not only…but (also), no sooner…than, hardly… when scarcely… when 等等。 注意:只有当Not only… but also连接两个分句时,才在第一个分句用倒装结构。如果置于句首的Not only… but also仅连接两个并列词语,不可用倒装结构,如Not only you but also I am fond of music。   14.4 so, neither, nor作部分倒装   用这些词表示\"也\"、\"也不\" 的句子要部分倒装。例如:       Tom can speak French. So can Jack. 汤姆会讲法语,杰克也会。   If you won\'t go, neither will I.你不去,我也不去。 典型例题   ---Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother?   ---I don\'t know, _____.   A. nor don\'t I care  B. nor do I care  C. I don\'t care neither  D. I don\'t care also 答案:B. nor为增补意思\"也不关心\",因此句子应倒装。A错在用 don\'t 再次否定,C neither 用法不对且缺乏连词。D缺乏连词。   注意:当so引出的句子用以对上文内容加以证实或肯定时,不可用倒装结构。意为\"的确如此\"。例如:   Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did. 汤姆邀我去踢球,我去了。   ---It\'s raining hard.---So it is. 雨下得真大。是呀。 14.5 only在句首倒装的情况。例如:   Only in this way, can you learn English well. 只有这样,你才能学好英语。   Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting. 叫了三次,他才来参加会议。   如果句子为主从复合句,则主句倒装,从句不倒装。例如:   Only when he is seriously ill does he ever stay in bed. 病得狠重时,他才卧床休息。 14.6 as, though 引导的倒装句   as / though引导的让步从句必须将表语或状语提前(形容词, 副词, 分词, 实义动词提前)。但需注意:   1) 句首名词不能带任何冠词。   2) 句首是实义动词, 其他助动词放在主语后。如果实义动词有宾语和状语,随实义动词一起放在主语之前。例如:    Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily. 他工作很努力,但总不能让人满意。 注意:让步状语从句中,有though,although时,后面的主句不能有but,但是 though 和yet可连用。    14.7 其他部分倒装 1) so… that 句型中的so 位于句首时,需倒装。例如: So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch. 他害怕得很,动也不敢动。 2) 在某些表示祝愿的句型中。例如:   May you all be happy. 愿你们都快乐。 3) 在虚拟语气条件句中从句谓语动词有were, had, should等词,可将if 省略,把 were, had, should 移到主语之前,采取部分倒装。例如:   Were I you, I would try it again. 我是你的话,就再试一次。 典型例题: 1)Not until the early years of the 19th century___ what heat is   A. man did know  B. man knew  C. didn\'t man know  D. did man know 答案为D. 否定词Not在句首,要求用部分倒装的句子结构。 2)Not until I began to work ___ how much time I had wasted.  A. didn\'t I realize  B. did I realize  C. I didn\'t realize D. I realize   答案为B。 3) Do you know Tom bought a new car?   I don\'t know, ___.   A. nor don\'t I care  B. nor do I care    C. I don\'t care neither D. I don\'t care also 答案为B. 句中的nor引出部分倒装结构,表示\"也不\"。由 so, neither, nor引导的倒装句,表示前一情况的重复出现。其中, so用于肯定句, 而 neither, nor 用在否定句中。 14.8 倒装练习 1.Only when you have obtained sufficient data ______ come to a sound conclusion. a. can you b. you can c. would you d. you would 2.______ that this region was so rich in natural resources. a. Little he knew b. Little did he know c. Little he did know d. Little he had known 3.Never again ______ political office after his 1928 defeat for the presidency. a. Alfred E. Smith seriously sought b. seriously Alfred E. Smith sought c. when did Alfred E. Smith seriously seek d. did Alfred E. Smith seriously seek 4.Only in recent years ______ begun to realize that wild dogs, kept within bounds, often do more good than harm. a. people have b. since people have c. have people d. people who have 5._______, we were not going to make any concessions to his unreasonable demands. a. What may come b. Come what may c. May what come d. What come 6.Not until I shouted at the top of my voice ______ his head. a. that he turned b. did he turn c. he didn’t turn d. he had turned 7.______ received law degrees as today. a. Never so women have b. The women aren’t ever c. Women who have never d. Never have so many women 8.Heat does not travel by convection in solid, because the solid does not move, ______. a. so does a liquid b. so a liquid does c. as does a liquid d. so is a liquid 9.On no account ______ to anyone. a. my name must be mentioned b. must my name mention c. must my name be mentioned d. my name must mention 10. ______ that they may eventually reduce the amount of labor needed on construction sites by 90 percent. a. Such construction robots are clever b. So clever the construction robots are c. So clever are the construction robots d. Such clever construction robots are 11.______ do we go for picnics. a. Certainly b. Sometimes c. Seldom d. Once 12.______ is it only the ignorant and ill-educated person who has such faith in the bottle of medicine. a. Either b. Often c. Nor d. Usually 13.Her answer is not acceptable, and ______. a. neither am I b. either is mine c. neither is mine d. mine is neither 14.______, I must do another experiment. a. Be it ever so late b. It is ever so late c. It be ever so late d. So late it be ever 15.So fast ______ that it is difficult for us to imagine its speed. a. light travel b. travels the light c. do light travel d. does light travel 16.A sneeze cannot be performed voluntarily, ______ be easily suppressed. a. nor it can b. nor can it c. it cannot d. and cannot it 17.______ notebook and report that I promised you last week. a. Here is the b. Here are the c. Is here the d. Are here the 18.______ a little more time to think, he might have acted more sensibly. a. If he took b. If he has taken c. had he taken d. Should he take 19.Beneath our feet ______ that our life depends on for food and clothing. a. the earth lay b. the earth lies c. lie the earth d. lies the earth 20._____ the beginning of the 19th century did scientists know that all matter is made up of atoms. a. At b. By c. Up to d. Not until 21.Hardly ______ he got out of the court ______ the reporters raised a lot of questions to him. a. had … when b. had…than c. did…when d. has…than 22.Among these books ______ a dictionary that his father gave him as a birthday present. a. have included b. is included c. has included d. are included 23.No longer are contributions to computer technology confined to any one country; ______ is this more true than in Europe. a. nowhere b. hardly c. little d. seldom 24.Important ______ his discovery was, it was regarded as a matter of no account in his time. a. to b. for c. as d. although 25.According to the periodic table, ______ still some elements undiscovered. a. there seem to be b. it seems c. it seems to be d. here seems 26.Here ______ you want to see. a. the manager comes b. comes the manager c. comes a manager d. is coming a manager 27.Barry can hardly drive a car, ______. a. so can’t Molly b. can’t Molly either c. Molly can’t too d. neither can Molly 28._______ for the leadership of the Party, we should not have succeeded. a. Had not it been b. Had it not been c. There was d. Is there 29.______ no air or water, there would be no life in the world. a. Were there b. There are c. There was d. Is there 30.Not only ______ the data fed into it, but it can also analyze them. a. the computer can memorize b. can the computer memorize c. do the computer memorize d. can memorize the computer 31.Not once ______ his view of life. a. did the gentleman mention b. the gentleman mentioned that c. the gentleman mentioned d. does gentleman mentioned 32.By no means ______ their own language well. a. it is true that all English people know b. is it true that do all English people know c. it is true that do all English people know d. is it true that all English people know 33.The molecules of gases move more freely than ______. a. do liquids and solids b. liquids and solids do c. do those of liquids and solids d. those do of liquids and solids 34.The world’s birth rates are on a decline and ______ are the death rates. a. so b. also c. too d. the same 35._____ is the volume of chemical goods. a. Constantly growing too b. Too constantly growing c. Growing constant to d. Too growing constant 36.Many a time _______ me with my English study. a. have he helped b. has he helped c. he have helped d. did he have helped 37.Typical of the new type of young people ______, who set a shining example to the whole nation. a. was Lei Feng b. Were Lei Feng c. Lei Feng was d. Lei Feng were 38.What Mr. Smith did was important , but ______. a. more important the way of he did things was b. the way of he did things was more important c. more important was the way he did things d. more important the way were he did things 39.She didn’t want to buy it, ______. a. however good was it b. however good it was c. for how good might it be d. for how good it might be 40.______ , it is always possible to find out its volume. a. Whatever the shape of a body may be b. The shape of a body may be whatever c. May whatever the shape of a body be d. Whatever may the shape of a body be 41.I won’t pay $20 for the coat; it’s not worth ______. a. all that much b. that much all c. that all much d. much all that 42.Hot air accompanied by high relative humidity feels warmer than ______. a. is it actually b. it actually is c. actually it is d. actually is it 43.Qingdao is usually cool in summer, but Nanjing ______. a. is rarely b. scarcely is c. hardly is d. rarely is 44.David, something important has happened. I wish to ______. a. talk it over with you b. talk over it c. talk over d. talk you over it 45.______, more than 200 houses and buildings are heated by solar energy, not to mention the big cities in the region. a. Alone in the small town b. In the small alone town c. In the small town alone d. In the alone small town 46.Geysers are found new near rivers and lakes, where water drains through the soil ______. a. surface below the deep b. deep below the surface c. the deep below surface d. the deep surface below 47.The wallflower ______ because its weak stems often grow on walls and along stony cliffs for support. a. so called is b. so is called c. is so called d. called is so 48.The history of painting is a fascination chain of evens that probably began with ______. a. ever made the very first pictures b. the ever made very first pictures c. the very first ever made pictures d. the very first pictures ever made 49.On the side of the hill, there is ______ which was once the entrance to a gold mine. a. a deep hole in ground b. a hole deep in ground c. a deep hole in the ground a deep in the ground hole 50.Will the boy who has taken my pen brine ______. a. back to me b. it back to me c. back it to me d. it to me back 12倒装练习答案 1 A 19 D 37 A 2 B 20 D 38 C 3 D 21 A 39 B 4 C 22 B 40 A 5 B 23 A 41 A 6 B 24 C 42 B 7 D 25 A 43 D 8 C 26 B 44 A 9 C 27 C 45 C 10 C 28 B 46 B 11 C 29 A 47 C 12 C 30 B 48 D 13 C 31 A 49 C 14 A 32 D 50 B 15 D 33 C 51 16 B 34 A 52 17 B 35 A 53 18 C 36 B 54 高考学习网-中国最大高考学习网站Gkxx.com | 我们负责传递知识!


一、完全倒装

  1、概念:把谓语动词完全放在主语之前;

  2、条件:

  (1)某些表示处所、方向等意义的副词放到句首;

  (2)物与动词是表示运动的不及物动词;

  3、有here、there、now、then或out、in、up、down、away等副词,谓语为come、go等表示位置移动的动词时,且主语又是名词时,构成完全倒装,说明动作的突然和迅速;

  e.g.

  (1)Here comes a bus= A bus is coming;

  (2)Then came a new development that had far-reaching effects. (接着是有深远影响的新发展)

  (3)The door opened and in came a woman with a shopping-bag in her hand.

  (4)Out rushed the children. (孩子们冲了出来)

  4、在叙述性和描绘性的书面语中,当句子开头为in the distance、on the hill、in the valley、round the corner等地点状语时,动词又是cone、is、stand、walk等,构成完全倒装

  e.g.

  (1)In the distance is floating a boat.

  (2)On the wall hangs / is hanging a picture.

  (3)On the table were some flowers.

  5、There引导的存在句:

  e.g.

  (1)There is no longer a particular year in which one goes to school or goes to work or gets married or starts a family. (不再有一个特定的上学、工作、结婚或成家的年龄了)

  (2)There is no place left for the piano.

  二、部分倒装:

  1、概念:指把主语的一部分,如助动词、情态动词等移到主语之前。

  2、含有部分否定或全否意义的副词或连词如seldom、hardly、never、not、little in no time、by no means、scarcely、really等

  e.g.

  (1)Seldom does he go out at weekends.

  (2)Never shall I forget it.

  (3)Little does he care about what others think.

  (4)Under no circumstances could we do anything against the low. (在任何情况下,我们都不应该做违法之事)

  3、not…until

  e.g.

  (1)Not until the teacher explained it again did he understand it.

  4、not only … but also(前倒后不倒):

  e.g.

  (1)Not only was his nationality taken away, but also he was divern off from the country.

  5、Neither … nor(前后都倒)

  (1)Neither do I know about it, nor do I came.

  6、当only后接副词、介词短语或状语从句放在句首时:

  e.g.

  (1)Only in this way can you improve your pronunciation.

  (2)Only then did I realize that I was wrong.

  (3)Only when the war was over in 1918 was he able to get back to work.

  7、把副词so放在句首,表示前面所说的情况也是适用于另一个人或物,其句式是:So + be/have(助动词或情态动词+主语);把neither, nor放在句首,表示前面所说的否定内容也适用于另一人或物,其句式是:Nor/Neither + be/have(助动词或情态动词+主语)。

  e.g.

  (1)If he does not go to park tomorrow, neither will I.

  (2)You are a Party member, so am I.

  (3)He has been to Beijing, so have I.

  (4)I am not interested in maths, neither is he.

  (5)I did not go to the cinema last night, nor did he.

  8、用以as引导的让步状语从句中,其结构如下:名词/形容词(副词)/分词+ as + 主语 + 动词,或动词原形 + as + 主语 + 助动词;

  e.g.

  (1)Tired as he was, he worked late into the night.

  (2)Child as he was, he was very brave(勇敢).

  (3)Try as they may, they will never succeed.

  9、用于省略if的虚拟条件句(只有had、should、were(was)可倒装):

  e.g.

  (1)If it were to rain tomorrow = Were it to rain tomorrow.

  (2)If I had attended the meeting, I would have been here.= Had I attended the meeting, I would have been here.

  10、在so…that、such…that的结构中,so、such放在句首时,后带表语或状语,借着的主语部分倒装,后面的结果状语从句不必倒装;

  e.g.

  (1)So rapidly did he speak that we could hardly here him.

  11、为了保持句子平衡,或为了强调标语或状语,或使上下文紧密衔接时:

  e.g.

  (1)They arrived at a farmhouse, in front of which sat a small boy.

  (2)Nearby were two canoes(独木舟),in which they had come to the island.(附近是两个独木舟,他们乘坐这两个独木舟来到这个岛)

  12、表示时间频率的状语位于句首使,且表示强调,用倒装语序:

  e.g.

  (1)Often did we warn them not to do so.

在英语句中,语序有两种:一是正常语序又叫自然语序即主语在前,谓语在后,这也是我们在学习英语各大从句所要求的,也是符合汉语语言思维的。另一种是倒装语序即谓语的全部或一部分却提到主语的前面,这是由于在进行口语或书面交流过程中表达的需要,要么平衡句子,语法结构的需要;要么行文需要强调以增强表达效果,或者二者兼而有之。比如:Do you speak English? 这是英语中最常见的倒装语序。英语的一般疑问句就是通过把谓语的一部分提到主语前面而达到疑问的目的(而汉语则是陈述句后加“吗?”;日语通过加“力' ” );又比如:Growing on both sides of the road are fruit trees. Gone are days when women were treated as second citizens. 都是比较典型的例句。还有,在写作中同学们喜欢用“Only in this way can we prevent this kind of disease from spreading.”来作总结句以提高表达效果。因此,倒装句作为非正常句值得研究。

下面我们就探究一下它内在的规律:倒装句分为部分倒装和完全倒装两种。部分倒装就是把谓语的一部分置于主语前即助动词(do, does, did, have,had),be动词或者具有助动词功能的词(如can, may等情态动词。完全倒装则是谓语全部置于主语前。如:Here comes the bus.

 

一. 部分倒装

1.当only+状语(从句)置于句首时,(主句)使用部分倒装。{注意:必须能清楚“状语”的概念}

1). Only once in history has the same man held the two high offices of President and Chief Justice of the United States. 历史上只有一次,同一个人拥有美国的总统和最高法官这两个高级职务。( once 副词 “一次”)

2). Only in that way will we be ready for the challenges and opportunities in life.只有这样我们才能保证自己对生活中的挑战和机遇有充分的准备。( in this way 介词短语“用这种方法”)

3). Only with combination of consideration, courage and confidence can we get over any difficulty. 因此,只有把思考、勇气和信心这三者结合起来,我们才能战胜一切困难。( with combination of consideration, courage and confidence 介词短语)

4). Only if the case is urgent should you call out the doctor in the middle of the night. 只有患者情况紧急时,你才可以在半夜叫医生看病。 ( if the case is urgent 是条件状语从句)


2.当否定副词或具有否定意义的介词短语或从句位于句首时,(主句)句子为部分倒装语序。这类的副词以及短语有:seldom, rarely, scarcely, little, no, not, nowhere, by no means, in no way, at no time, in no case等。e.g

1) No longer was she so gentle, so relaxed and easy-going. 她不再这样温柔、这样轻松、这样容易相处了。

2) Little did they know the wonderful surprise that was in store for them!对于正在等待着他们的惊奇,他们则知之甚少。

3) Nowhere else in the world can there be such a quiet, beautiful place. 这样一个安静、优美的地方你到哪儿找去呀。

4) By no means shall I misunderstand you. 我决不会误解你。

5) At no time should we give up study though we have made great progress. 尽管我们已经取得很大进步,但是,也不应该停止学习。

注意:要熟练掌握并运用以下4个经典句型:Not only... but also..., Not until..., ... No sooner... than..., Hardly\Scarcely... when...

1) Not until years later did I realize that Peter Beatus had given me a more important gift. 直到几年之后我才意识到皮特?贝特斯送给我的是一件更加重要的礼物。

2) Scarcely had I arrived when he came out to meet me. 我刚一到他就出来迎接我。( 注意: 主句的过去完成时态)

3) No sooner had he arrived than she started complaining. 他一到她就开始抱怨。

4) Not only will Australians never try to wipe out flies, but also they will protect them as they protect other animals. 澳大利亚人不但从不消灭苍蝇,而且还会像保护其它动物那样去保护它们。

3. So 修饰形容词或者副词,such修饰名词并位于句首时, 主句使用部分倒装。

1)So convinced was I of that woman's being her mother that I wanted no evidence to establish the fact in my mind. 那位妇女是她的母亲,这一点我深信不疑,心里也不想再找任何证据来证明这个事实。

2)Such a noise was there that I couldn't work in the room. 房间里噪音这么大,我没法工作。

3)So tired was he after a whole day's hard work that he could hardly stand. 经过一整天的辛苦劳动,他累得几乎站不住了。

4)So much did they eat that they could not move for the next hour. 他们吃得太多了,一个小时都动弹不得。

如果说以上3种倒装都发生在主句里,那么以下两种却在从句中进行而且各具特点。

4. as引导的倒装句: as作“虽然”解,引导让步状语从句时,必须将表语状语动词原形提到as前面。此时应注意几点:一是若提前的表语是没有形容词修饰的单数可数名词,要省略不定冠词;二是若提前的是动词原形(多为不及物动词),与之连用的通常是may, might, will, would等,且这些词都要保留在原来的位置上(主语后);三是though有时也可像as这样使作倒装。如:

1)Tired as I was, I tried to help them. 虽然我很累,我还是努力帮助他们。(tired adj. 作表语)

2)Try as he would, he couldn't open the door. 他试过多次了, 却仍打不开那门。(try vi. )

3)Search as they would, they would find nobody in the house. 无论怎样搜查,他们在房子里仍然没有找到一个人。

4)Hard as (though) they tried, they couldn't make her change her mind. (hard adv. 努力地)

5)Boy as he was, he behaved like a girl. 他虽是个男孩,但举止却像个女孩。(boy 前省略冠词)

5. If 引导的虚拟条件句中,引导词if的省略。如果在条件句中有助动词should, were和had, 省略引导词if,把助动词提前。

1)Were I a teacher (=if I were a teacher), what would you do then?
2)Had we made adequate preparations (= if we had made…), the party would have been a success.

If you had followed the teacher’s advice, you might have passed the test.

改写:____________________________________________________.

If I were a billionaire, I would buy you a villa.(如果我是亿万富翁,我就给你买别墅。)

改写:______________________________________________

If it should rain tomorrow,we wouldn't go to the sea.

改写:________________________________________.

注意:在下列句子中"should" 表示“万一”,依然可以进行“if”的省略倒装。

Should you be interested (if you are…),I have a book on the subject you might like to see.
Should you need any help (=if you need anyhelp), you can always phone me at the office.

以上是对倒装句部分倒装五大经典结构的分析与说明,使用时可根据自己的学习情况填充更丰富的内容.

巩固练习:

1. Not until I began to work ____ how much time I had wasted.
A. didn't I realize B. did I realize C. I didn't realize D. I realized
2. Only by practising a few hours every day ____ be able to master the language.
A. you can B. can you C. you will D. will you
3. No sooner ____ to the station ____ the train left.
A. had I got,when B. I had got,than C. had I got,than D. did I get,when

4. ____ today, he would get there by Sunday.
A. Would he leave B. Was he leaving C. Were he to leave D. If he leave
5. Never in my life ____ such a thing.
A. I have heard or have seen B. have I heard or seen C. I have heard or seen D. did I hear or see
6. ____ ,I will not buy it.
A. Much as do I like it B. As much I like it C. Much as I like it D. As I like it much

7. _____ the expense,I _____ to Italy.
A. If it were not,go B. Were it not for,would go C. Weren't it for,will go D. If it hadn't been,would have gone
8. So _____ in the darkness that he didn't dare to move an inch.
A. he was frightened B. was he frightened C. frightened he was D. frightened was he
9. Only after I read the text over again _____ its main idea.
A. that I know B. did I know C. I could know D. I did know
10. So excited _____ that he couldn't say a word.
A. he seemed B. did he seem C. was he seeming D. he did look
11. ____ I had time, I would have run around again.
A. Had B. If C. unless D. when
12. Little ______ when I took the trip where it would lead me.
A. have I known B. had I known C. do I know D. did I know
13. —— Have you ever seen anything like that before?
---- ____.
A. No,I never have seen anything like that before B. No,never I have seen anything like that before
C. No,never have I seen anything like that before D. No,I have seen anything like that before never
14. _____ ,I would accept the invitation and go to the party.
A. Were I you B. Was I you C. Had I been you D. Would I be you
15. Not only _____ a promise,but also he kept it.
A. did he make B. he made C. does he make D. has he made
16. Not once _____ their plan.
A. did they change B. they changed C. changed they D. they did change
17. Not until he arrived home _____ he find that this wallet had been stolen.
A. did B. would C. when D. that
18. Nowhere else in the world _____ cheaper tailoring(裁缝业)than in Hong Kong.
A. a tourist can find B. can a tourist find C. a tourist will find D. a tourist has found
19. _____ succeed in doing anything.
A.Only by working hard we can B.By only working hard we can C.Only we can by working hard D.Only by working hard can we
20. _____ that we all went out,lying in the sun.
A. So fine was the weather B. So was the fine weather
C. The weather was so fine was D. So the weather was fine
21. ____ a nice man ____ that we all believe him.
A. So, did he seem B. So, he seemed C. Such, he seemed D. Such, did he seem
22. ____, he never seems able to do the work beautifully.
A. Try as he does B. As he tries C. Try as does he D. As try he does
23. So carelessly _____ that he almost killed himself.
A. he drives B. does he drive C. did he drive D. he drove
24. Little _____ about his own health though he was very ill.
A. he cared B. did he care C. he cares D. does he care
25. No sooner ____ they rushed out into the street.
A. did they hear the news than B. did they hear the news when
C. had they heard the news than D. had they heard the news when
26. Little wonder _____ up their hands in dismay.
A. have some thrown B. some have thrown C. thrown some have D. have thrown some
27. ____, he would have passed the exam.
A. If he were to study B. If he studied hard C. Had he studied hard D. Should he study hard
28. We were lucky enough, for no sooner _____ home _____ it rained.
A. we returned,and B. we had returned,when C. did we return,when D. had we returned,than
29. So little _____ agree on the plan that they could not settle their difference.
A. did they B. do they C. they did D. they did not

30. _____ he realized it was too late to return home.
A. No sooner it grew dark than B. Hardly did it grow dark when
C. It was not until dark that D. It was until dark that

31. Jimmy was so nervous not a single word _____ down in the dictation.
A. he wrote B. he was written C. did he write D. was he written

32 ___ understanding the challenges faced by the world's poorest people can we expect a new future free of extreme poverty and hunger. A. On B. Through C. Only D.Only by

33. ___ he likes physics, he likes mathematics better.

A. Much as B. As much C. So much D. More as

34. So ___ are you that you are doubtful of everyone's words, which is not good to your health.

A.sensible  B. content   C.sensitive D.impressive

35. Rarely had they seated themselves hurriedly in the theater ___ the curtain went up.

A. than B. when C. as soon as D. before

二. 全部倒装

  在下面几种情况下,需把全部的谓语动词放在主语之前,构成全部倒装:

  (1)在There be/seem/appear/live/stand/lie/fly/exist/remain等存在句中。例如:

  Look, there's that bookshop I was telling you about.

  Long ago there lived a king with his three lovely daughters.

  (2)表示时间、地点和动作转移的副词如here、there、now、then、up、down、in、away、out等置于句首时,为使生动地描述情景而采用倒装语序。此时,句子多用一般现在时或一般过去时。例如:

  There goes the phone. I'll answer it.

  There comes the bus!

  Suddenly, in came a man with a mask on his face.

  (3)Such作表语置于句首时。例如:

  Such was Albert Einstein, a simple man and the 20th century's greatest scientist.

  (4)直接引语的全部或部分位于句首时。例如:

  “If you die, who will get your money?”asked Holmes.

  (5)表示地点的介词短语开头的句子。

  In the center of the square stands a monument.

  On the back wall hangs a portrait.

  Inside the pyramids are burial rooms for the kings and queens。

  (6)为平衡句子结构,或使上下文衔接紧密,而将作表语的介词短语、形容词、副词或分词提到句首,引起倒装。例如:

  Gone forever are the days when the Chinese people had to use foreign oil.

  Seated on the grass are a group of students.

  Lying about on the floor are books and magazines.

三.省略倒装

当表示前面所说的情况也适用于另一个人或事物时,常用so/as+系动词/助动词/情态动词+主语,表示“……也是……”。例如:

  Times have changed and so have I.

  Eve’s very tall, as was her mother.

  (6)当neither, nor位于句首,表示前面否定的内容也适用与另一个人或事物时,常用neither/nor+系动词/助动词/情态动词+主语,表示“……也不……”。例如:

  They couldn’t understand it at the time, and nor could we.

  (7)省略if的虚拟条件句,把助动词were、had、should提到主语前面时。例如:

  Had it not been for your help, we shouldn't have achieved so much.

四.精典名题导解

  1. (2008上海) So much of interest _____ that most visitors simply run out of time before seeing it all.

  A. offers Beijing B. Beijing offers C. does Beijing offer D. Beijing does offer

  考点解析:题干为so…that句式,因so位于句首,因此主句采用部分倒装语序。最佳答案为C。

  2. (2008陕西)Not until the motorbike looked almost new _________ repairing and cleaning it.

  A. he stopped B. did he stop C. stopped he D. he did stop

  考点解析:题干中含有not...until.。.句式,而且not +until从句位于句首,因此主句采用部分倒装语序。最佳答案为B。

  3. (2008辽宁) Bill wasn’t happy about the delay of the report by Jason, and ______.

  A. I was neither B. neither was I C. I was either D. either was I

  考点解析:前句为否定句,下句不是前句的情况适用于另一主语,因此应用neither/nor+系动词/助动词/情态动词+主语,最佳答案为B。

  4. (2008重庆) Only when I left my parents for Italy ______ how much I loved them.

  A. I realized B. I had realized C. had I realized D. did I realize

  考点解析:因Only+ when状语从句位于句首,因此主句应采用部分倒装语序,最佳答案为D。

  5. (2009年郑州市高中毕业班第一次质量预测) —How did you enjoy your visit?

  ----- ___ in my life had I received such good service from any business.

  A.Few B.Never C.Only D.None

  考点解析:依据题干中had I received谓语采用倒装的信息,可判断空白处填副词Never ,最佳答案为B。

  6. (江西省重点中学协作体2009届高三第一次联考)—It was careless of you to have left the house without turning off the cooker.

  —My God! 。

  A.So were you B.So was I C.So did I D.So I did

  考点解析:答语中的My God!暗示说话人同意上句的内容,因此空白处填So I did,表示“天那,我真是(太粗心)”。最佳答案为D。

  7. (2009年江西省南昌市高三调研测试卷) Never before in greater need of modern public transport than it is today.

  A.has this city been B.this city has been  C.was this city D.this city was

  考点解析:因含否定意义的词语Never位于句首,因此谓语需用部分倒装语序,句中含副词before多用现在完成时,因此最佳答案为A。


全部倒装是只将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。此结构通常只用与一般现在时和 一般过去时。常见的结构有:
 1) here, there, now, then, thus等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用be, come, go, lie, run。
  There goes the bell.
  Then came the chairman.
  Here is your letter.

 2) 表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词。
  Out rushed a missile from under the bomber.
  Ahead sat an old woman.

 注意:上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词,如果主语是人称代词则不能完全倒装。
   Here he comes.   Away they went.
部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态倒装至主语之前。如果句中的谓语没有助动词或情态动词,则需添加助动词do, does或did,并将其置于主语之前。

 1) 句首为否定或半否定的词语,如no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time, in no way, not until… 等。
  Never have I seen such a performance.
  Nowhere will you find the answer to this question.
  Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room.
 当Not until引出主从复合句,主句倒装,从句不倒装。

注意: 如否定词不在句首不倒装。
   I have never seen such a performance.
   The mother didn't leave the room until the child fell asleep.

典型例题  

1) Why can't I smoke here?
  At no time___ in the meeting-room
A. is smoking permitted  B. smoking is permitted
C. smoking is it permitted D. does smoking permit
答案A. 这是一个倒装问题。当否定词语置于句首以表示强调时,其句中的主谓须用倒装结构。 这些否定词包括no, little, hardly, seldom, never, not only, not until等。本题的正常语序是 Smoking is permitted in the meeting-room at no time.

2) Not until the early years of the 19th century ___ what heat is.
  A. man did know  B. man know  C. didn't man know  D. did man know
 答案D.  看到Not until…的句型,我们知道为一倒装句,答案在C,D 中选一个。
 改写为正常语序为,Man did not know what heat is until the early years of the 19th. 现在将not提前,后面就不能再用否定了,否则意思就变了。
以否定词开头作部分倒装

 如 Not only…but also, Hardly/Scarcely…when, No sooner… than
  Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender.
  Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her.
  No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her.

典型例题
No sooner___ than it began to rain heavily.
A. the game began      B. has the game begun
C. did the game begin    D. had the game begun
答案D. 以具有否定意义的副词放在句首时,一般采用倒装句(谓语前置)。这类表示否定意义的词有never, seldom, scarcely, little, few, not, hardly, 以及not only…but (also), no sooner…than, hardly… when scarcely… when 等等。

注意:只有当Not only… but also连接两个分句时,才在第一个分句用倒装结构。如果置于句首的Not only… but also仅连接两个并列词语,不可用倒装结构。
  Not only you but also I am fond of music.
so, neither, nor作部分倒装

表示"也"、"也不" 的句子要部分倒装。    
  Tom can speak French. So can Jack.
  If you won't go, neither will I.

典型例题
 ---Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother?
 ---I don't know, _____.
 A. nor don't I care  B. nor do I care  C. I don't care neither  D. I don't care also
答案:B. nor为增补意思"也不关心",因此句子应倒装。A错在用 don't 再次否定, C neither 用法不对且缺乏连词。 D缺乏连词。

  注意: 当so引出的句子用以对上文内容加以证实或肯定时,不可用倒装结构。意为"的确如此"。
  Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did.
  ---It's raining hard.   ---So it is.
only在句首要倒装的情况

Only in this way, can you learn English well.
  Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting.
  如果句子为主从复合句,则主句倒装,从句不倒装
  Only when he is seriously ill, does he ever stay in bed.
14.6 as, though 引导的倒装句

as / though引导的让步从句必须将表语或状语提前 (形容词, 副词, 分词, 实义动词提前)。

注意:
    1) 句首名词不能带任何冠词。
    2) 句首是实义动词, 其他助动词放在主语后。如果实义动词有宾语和状语,  随实义动词一起放在主语之前。
   Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily.

注意:
  让步状语从句中,有though,although时,后面的主句不能有but,但是 though 和yet可连用。

其他部分倒装

1)  so… that 句型中的so 位于句首时,需倒装。
   So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch.

2) 在某些表示祝愿的句型中:
  May you all be happy.

3) 在虚拟语气条件句中从句谓语动词有were, had, should等词,可将if 省略,把 were, had, should 移到主语之前,采取部分倒装。
  Were I you, I would try it again.

典型例题:
1) Not until the early years of the 19th century___ what heat is  
A. man did know  B. man knew  C. didn't man know  D. did man know
答案为D. 否定词Not在句首,要求用部分倒装的句子结构。

2) Not until I began to work ___ how much time I had wasted. 
A. didn't I realize  B. did I realize  C. I didn't realize D. I realize
 答案为B。

3) Do you know Tom bought a new car?
 I don't know, ___.
 A. nor don't I care  B. nor do I care 
 C. I don't care neither D. I don't care also
 解析:答案为B. 句中的nor引出部分倒装结构,表示"也不"。由 so, neither, nor引导的倒装句,表示前一情况的重复出现。其中, so用于肯定句, 而 neither, nor 用在否定句中。




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