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素心守拙

那怕老态龙钟时,也愿保持一颗天真的心。

 
 
 

日志

 
 

one that it 的区别  

2010-12-14 20:15:27|  分类: 英语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 it/one /that三者均可用作代词, 指代前面提到的名词。一般说来, it指代同名同物; one与that则指代同名异物。
I have lost my umbrella; I'm looking for it. (该句中it就是指前面的my umbrella)
I have lost my umbrella; I think I must buy one. (one在该句中表泛指, 因为my umbrella已经丢了)
The umbrella you bought is cheaper than that I bought. (替代词that在该句中特指“the umbrella I bought”, 以区别“the umbrella you bought”)
II. one与that虽可用来指代同名异物, 但one为泛指, 相当于a/an+名词; that为特指, 相当于the +名词。所以one所指代的名词的修饰语一般为 a/an /some /any; that所指代的名词的修饰语往往是the /this /that。
A chair made of steel is stronger than one made of wood. (该句中one可以换成a chair)
The water in the cup is hotter than that in the pot. (该句中that可以换成 the water)
III. one只能代替可数名词单数, 代替可数名词复数时用ones; that既可以代替不可数名词也可以代替可数名词单数, 代替可数名词复数时用 those。
I like this pen more than that one. (one代替可数名词单数pen)
There were a few young people and some older ones in the house. (ones代替可数名词复数people)
Mary's handwriting is far better than that of Peter. (that代替不可数名词 handwriting)
These pictures are more beautiful than those. (those代替可数名词复数 pictures)
IV. one既可代替事物, 也可代替人, that只能代替事物而不能代替人。有时可以用the one或the ones代替that或those。
The one /That on the table is mine. (该句中The one代替事物, 并且也可以用That)
He is the teacher, the one who is loved by the students. (该句中the one代替人, 不能用that)
He advised the farmers to choose the best seed-heads, the ones /those that had the best color. (该句中the ones代替事物, 并且也可以用those)
V. one一般有前置修饰语, 有时也可有后置修饰语或不用修饰语。而 that不能有前置修饰语, 但可有后置修饰语。
Cook was a strict but good captain, one who took good care of his sailors.
The water in the well is cleaner than that in the river.
VI. it可以替代句中的不定式或从句等, 充当形式主语或形式宾语。one与that均无此用法。
It is known to everybody that the moon travels around the earth once every month.
I found it hard to get on with her.
VII. it与that均可以替代上文全句的内容或部分内容, 而one /ones则不可以。
He has saved my life; I'll never forget it. (it代替第一分句)
Tom is painting his house. I am told he does it every four years. (it代替前面分句的部分内容painting his house)
Let's say we meet here at three o'clock. That ought to give you time to buy everything. (That代替前面表述的内容)
[相关练习]
1. Mr Zhang gave the textbooks to all the pupils except _____ who had already taken them.
A. the ones B. ones C. some D. the others
2. I find _____ easy enough to get on with Pam.
A. that B. this C. one D. it
3. If I can stop her coming to you, I shall do_____.
A. those B. which C. these D. it
4. I haven't a pen. Can you lend me_____?
A. these B. those C. them D. one
5. _____ is necessary that I get the text of my revision typed.
A. There B. This C. That D. It
6. I took _____ for granted that you would stay with us.
A. it B. that C. these D. them
7. Few pleasures can equal _____ of a cool drink on a hot day.
A. some B. any C. that D. those
8. Of all my old friends, the only _____ I saw much of was Betty.
A. it B. that C. one D. this
Key: 1—8ADDDDACC

 

请看2002年高考英语试题35小题:
Meeting my uncle after all these years was an unforgettable moment, _______ I will always treasure.
A.that                         B. one                       C.it                         D.what
正确答案是B。本题主要是考查考生对代词 it ,that 和one的区别。it, that 和 one 都可以代替上文已提及的事或人,以避免重复,但它们的用法是有区别的。it替代上文中出现的同一人或事物; that,one 指代同类事物或人中的一个或一件。本题中的one是 an unforgettable moment之同位语,之后跟一个由that引起的定语从句,that又可以省去。又如:
——Why don't you take a little break?
——Didn't we just have ______ ?(NMET 2000 ,23)
          A.it                    B. that                   C.one                  D.this
正确答案是 C。
高三英语(上)第六课就有一个例句,    He (Cook)was a strict but good captain, one   who ,unusually , took good care of the sailors on the ship.
近几年的高考题不断对替代词进行考查,现就其用法归纳如下:
一、it 所替代的是上文已提到的人、事物,是同类同物;而 that 和 one 所替代的只是上文所提及的同一类事物,但不是上文所提及的同一事物,表示泛指,如:
1.Someone is ringing the bell.Go and see who it   is .(上海2000,29)
   有人按门铃,去看看是谁。
2.I have a computer .   It's very advanced .
    我有一台电脑,它很先进。
3.Few pleasures can equal   that of a cool drink on such a hot day.(NMET99,17)
    如此炎热的天气,几乎没有什么乐趣能够等同于一杯冷饮带来的乐趣。
4.I hope   there   are    enough   glasses   for each   guest to have   one.(NMET95,21)
    我希望有足够的茶杯让每个客人一个。
    二、it和that可以替代上文所提到的可数名词单数形式,也可以代替上文所提及的不可数名词,it的复数是them;而one只代替上文所提到的可数名词单数,that 和one 复数分别是those 和 ones,替代可数名词复数,所指名词属同类但不同一。
5.——Have you read the books I lent you ?      ——Yes ,I have read    them .
     ——   我借给你的书读了吗?           ——是的,我都读了。
6. My   shoes are similiar to the   ones   you had on yesterday .
    我的鞋子和你昨天穿的差不多 。
7.Our   rulers are quite different from   those of other organizations .
    我们的规章制度和别的机关的大不相同。
三、that和one代替上文提及的名词时,不包括该名词所带的定语,that 的定语一般是后置的短语、分词或定语从句;one的定语除了前置的形容词、指示代词    (this ,that )外,还有后置的形容词、从句或短语。
8.The water pumped from wells is much cleaner than   that   pumped from   rivers.
从井里抽出来的水比从河里抽上来的水清洁得多。
9.The shirt is as good as   that I   bought last week.
    这件衬衫和我昨天买的一样好。
10. This thin book is easy ,but that thick   one   is rather diffficult.
     这 本薄薄的书很易读,但那本厚厚的书却很难。
11.Pass me the dictionary ,the   one with a blue cover.
     请把那本有兰色封面的字典递给我。
12. The musician was the   one   I wanted   to   pay a visit .
      这就是那位我很想拜访的音乐家。
四、it作形式主语或宾语,代替to do,that从句,wh-从句 ,doing等,that和            one 却不能;it 和 that 都可以代替前面整个句子,而 one 则不能。
13.It is useless trying to argue with Shylock.
      跟夏洛克讲理是没有用的。
14.I hate   it   when people talk with their mouths full . (NMET98,8)
      我憎恨满嘴是饭和别人说话。
15.I made   it   a ruler to walk two miles a day .
      我固定每天步行2 英里。
16.Where was   it    that   the Olympic Games started ,Greece or Italy?
      奥运会发源于哪个国家,希腊还是意大利?
17.Mr Li was ill yesterday . That was why he didn't give us lessons.
      李老师昨天生病了,所以他没有给我们上课。
五、one可以替代整个名词词组,名词词组中心词,或名词词组的一部分,在序数词、形容词最高级及比较级之后可以省去。  
18.The old lady raised two geese , a black   one   and a white   one .
       那位老太太养了两只鹅,一只黑色,另一只白色。
19.I think Mary is the best   (one)   in the class.
      我认为马丽是班上最好的学生。
20.I don't like the first film but the second   (one )
      我不喜欢第一部电影,但喜欢第二部。
请做下面的巩固练习:
1.MrZhang gave the books to all the pupils except ____ who had already taken them.
     A.the ones               B. ones                     C.some                D. the others
2.——Did you have my pen,Mary?           ——Yes, I have ______ right here.
      A.one                     B.it                            C. this                 D. that
3.I have no bookself   in my room ,so I'm going to make ________ myself .
    A.it                           B. this                       C. that                D. one
4.    May I help you with some gloves, sir?
       Yes, I'd like to try on those blues ______ .
        A.those                  B.ones                        C. two               D.pair
5.The monkey's   hands are very skilled like ________ .
    A.a man             B.that of a man         C.those of a man        D. one of a man
(答案   1.A    2.B   3.D   4.B     5.C)

 

代词that, one, the one, it的用法区别

 它们三词均作代词用,指代前文提到的名词。但是it

  所指是同名同物,one和that所指是同名异物


① that是特指,代替前面提到的不可数名词或单数可数名词。代指前面提及的同类而非同一物,其复数用those,后面一般有后置定语。
The weather in Kunming is better than that in Wuhan.
The population of China is larger than that of any other country in the world.
② one是泛指,指代前面提到的同类人或物(可数名词)中的一个,其复数用ones,前面一般有定语。
I bought five pencils for my children, two red ones and three green ones.
③ the one 是特指,指代前面提到的同类人或物(可数名词)中的一个,其复数用the ones。
This picture is the one that I drew yesterday.
④ it是特指,代替前面提到的那个特定的事物。
I lost my dictionary yesterday. I haven't find it so far.

一、it的用法
1、it指代上文所提事物的本身(it表时间、强调等的用法此处不阐明),如果所代替的事物为复数,则应该用they或them表示。
2、it也可以用来代替上文所提到的一件事。
1.The Parkers bought a new house but _____ will need a lot of work before they can move in. (NMET2001,25)
A.they B.it C.one D.which
2.I am looking for a house. I’d like ____ with a brook around_____.
A.one,it B.it,it C.one,one D.it,one
3.Mary’s mother always told her to work hard, but______didn’t help.
A.one B.he C.she D.it
4. —Do you like these photos? — Yes, ____are very beautiful and I like____ very much.
A.they,those B.they,them C.ones,ones D.the ones, the ones
5.—Are you still using your old car? --No, I sold___the other day.
A.it B.one C.that one D.the one
6.Yesterday I lost my pen, but now I have found_____.
A.it B.them C.ones D.those
7.—Where are my books? --_____ are on the TV set.
A.Ones B.Those C.The ones D.They
8.Where have you put my shoes? I can’t find_____anywhere.
A.them B.those C.ones D.the ones
9.Where did you buy the watch? Would you please get____ for me?
A.it B.one C.the one D.them
10.Don’t read in the sun. ____ is bad for your eyes.
A.One B.The one C.It D.This

二、that的用法
1、that用来指前文中确定的非同一事物,常用来替代与定冠词或形容词性物主代词连用的单数可数名词或不可数名词,相当于“the+名词”,其复数形式为those。
2、that表替代时为始终是特指(作指示代词和关系代词用时另论),可指上文谈到的人、物或情况(均为单数),可代替可数名词和不可数名词。
3、若that所代替的内容为前置用法,即要代替的内容将出现在下文中,一般用this,these或the following表示。
1.—He was nearly drowned once
—When was_______?(NMET2002 Beijing spring)
—_____was in 1998 when he was in middle school.
A.that,It B.this,This C.this,It D.that,This
2.Equipped with modern facilities, today’s libraries differ from______ (2003 Shanghai spring,26)
A.those of the past B.the past C.which of the past D.those past
3.Few pleasure can equal __of a cool drink on a hot day. (NMET99,17; NMET99 Guangdong,29)
A.some B,any C.that D.those
4.The population of Sichuan Province is larger than ____of any province in China.
A.one B.it C.that D.the one
5.What I want to suggest is_____: Everyone should have another try. We needn’t only wait for help.
A.that B.this C.it D.one
6.You see, the accident happened like_____: The red car hit the bus and made all the traffic stop.
A.that B.this C.it D.one
7.Listen! ________ is about the lessons we will have to finish today.
A.It B.The one C.The following D.One
8.The climate here is quite different from____ of Shengyang.
A.that B.it C.one D.the one
9.The study of idioms is as important as____ of grammar.
A.one B.that B.it D.this
10.My seat is next to_____ of my teacher.
A.that B.it C.this D.one
三、which的用法
1、在后置的非限制性定语从句中代替上文出现的事物或情况(单数或复数)。
2、在问句中作为疑问代词,在名词从句中作为连接代词用,其含义为“哪个、哪些”。
3、如果非限制性定语从句的先行词不是指主句内容,而是指具体的人、时间、地点,则不用which。
4、如果非限制性定语从句前置,则用as。
1.Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, _____, of course, made the others unhappy. (NMET2000,17)
A.who B.which C.this D.what
2.The result of the experiment was very good, which we hadn’t expected. (NMET2000 Beijing spring,10)
A.when B.that C.which D.what
3.China has its own English language newspaper, China Daily,______is published in Beijing.
A.that B.it C.which D.one
4.China Daily has plenty of advertisements, _____ help to cut the costs of making the newspapers.
A.that B.it C.which D.they
5._____ would you like better, the blue one or the red one?
A.Which B.What C.That D.How
6.I don’t know in_____ direction the thief ran away.
A.whose B.what C.which D.where
7.The old scientist went to the U.S.A in 1921, _____ he spent his last years.
A.which B.when C.where D.that
8.____we all know, China is developing at a great speed to catch up with the western countries.
A.Which B.That C.It D.As
9.At last we came to an old castle, _____ roof was in a bad state.
A.which B.what C.whose D.that
10.The man was standing behind the window, _____ he could see what was happening outside the house.
A.from which B.from where C.where D.which
四、one 的用法
1、 常用来代替与上文所提到人或物相类似的不确定的另一人或物(泛指),且被替代者为可数名词单
数形式。
2、 若下文替代者表示非特指含义,则用a/an—adj—one形式表示;若下文替代者为另一特指含义,
则用the one或the—adj—one表示;若下文替代时为复数含义,则用the—adj—ones 或the ones表示。
3、 one作替代词用时,其前可加某些形容词或限定词,如the,this,that,which,each,every,any,但一般不
能直接在其前加物主代词。
4、one被后置定语修饰表示特指时,前面应加the;被形容词修饰表示泛指时,其前应加a/an;被形容词修饰表示特指时其前应加the。
5、one作主语时,其对应的物主代词用 one’s或 his,反身代词用 oneself或 himself,重复主语用 one 或he。
1.I hope there are enough glasses for each guest to have_______ . (NMET95,21)
A.it B.those C.them D.one
2.—Why don’t we take a little break? —Didn’t we just have________? (NMET2000,23)
A.it B.that C.one D.this
3.Meeting my uncle after all these years was an unforgettable moment, one I will always treasure. (NMET2002,35)
A.that B.one C.it D.what
4. —Did a letter come for me? —Yes, there was _______for you this morning.
A.one B.it C.the one D.that
5.He has a blue pen and two red ______.
A.one B.ones C.those D.the ones
6.I brought a necklace to you that day, but it was________.
A. a different one B.different one C.the different one D.different ones
7.I don’t like this blue cat, I’d like______.
A. the red one B.red one C.a red D.that red
8.I don’t like this expensive cake, _______ is OK.
A.cheap one B.that cheap C.a cheap one D.a cheap
9.____should love____country.
A.One,her B.She,her B.One,one’s D.One,ones
10.Such a drug will make_____ find it hard to go without it.
A.it B.that C.one D.ones
11.Yesterday I lost my pen, but I’ve bought______.
A.it B.that C.one D.the one
12.Young people like seeing the film, but old_____ don’t.
A.those B.ones C.one D.them
13.This book is_____that is needed by all of us.
A.it B.one C.that D.the one
14.He is_____who gave us the talk yesterday.
A.that B.one C.the one D.himself
15.Is this museum_____they paid a visit to yesterday?
A.that B.where C.the one D.which
16.Your old bike is_____, it’s much better than_____
A.a good one,my new one B.good one,my one
C.a good,my new one D.one good,new my one
17.This advice is different from_____.
A.that one B.that C.it D.the one
18.The books on the table are more than____ on the bookshelf.
A.they B.them C.those D.ones
19.A cake made of wheat costs less than____ made of rice.
A.one B.it C.those D.that
20.Do you like red ink or_____?
A.blue one B.blue C.the blue one D.red ink
21.The step you’ve taken is_____ of much risk.
A.one B.that C.it D.ones
22.I’m told you’ve got some foreign stamps. Will you please give me_____?
A.one B.it C.that D.the one
五、so的用法
1、so表示替代常用来代替上文中出现的内容,尤其是上文内容在下文中以宾语从句形式出现时。
2、如果在下文被代替者为否定含义的宾语从句,常用否定动词+so或直接用not代替。如:
1. —The boys are not doing a good job at all, are they?
—______.(NMET2003 Beijing spring,22)
A.I guess not so B.I don’t guess C.I don’t guess so D.I guess not
2. —Do you think it’s going to rain over the weekend?
—_____.(NMET94,13)
A.I don’t believe B.I don’t believe it C.I believe not so D.I believe not)
3. —Do you think it’s going to rain again? —I _____, but I _____.
A.think not,hope so B.not think,so hope C.don’t think so,don’t hope so D.think not,hope not
4.—Do you think it’s going to be fine ? --Yes, and I______.
A.expect that B.expect so C.expect it D.expect them
5.—Will they come back again? --No, I_____.
A.don’t believe B.not believe C.believe not D.don’t believe that



 

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