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高考英语中最常考的八类状语从句  

2010-01-04 14:47:58|  分类: 英语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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高考英语中最常考的八类状语从句

状语从句是高考英语的必考考点,综观近年来各省市状语从句的考题情况,我们发现以下八类状语从句特别值得关注:

一、in case引导的状语从句

根据语境的不同,in case既可表示“如果”“万一”,引导条件状语从句;

也可表示“以防(万一)”,引导目的状语从句。

1. Leave your key with a neighbor ______ you lock yourself out one day. (北京卷)

A. ever since   B. even if  C. soon after   D. in case

2. My parents live in a small village. They always keep candles in the house ______ there is a power cut. (重庆卷)

A. if  B. unless   C. in case   D. so that

【解析】两道题都选in case,均表示“以防万一”。

二、before引导的状语从句

尤其要注意“it+be+一段时间+before…”这一句型。如:

1. The field research will take Joan and Paul about five months; it will be a long time ______ we meet them again. (安徽卷)

A. after   B. before   C. since   D. when

2. He was told that it would be at least three more months ______ he could recover and return to work. (江西卷)

A. when  B. before  C. since D. that

【解析】两道题均before。第1题涉及的句式为:It will be a long time before…,意思是“要过很久才会……”;第2题涉及的句式为:it was some time before…,意思是“在……之前过了一段时间”,通常可转译为“要过一段时间才会……”。

三、while引导的状语从句

尤其要注意while表示“尽管”“虽然”时的用法(此时它引导的不是时间状语从句,而是让步状语从句——此用法许多同学并不熟悉,值得特别注意!)。如:

______ I really don’t like art, I find his work impressive. (山东卷)

A. As    B. Since    C. If   D. While

【解析】答案选D。while在此表示“尽管”“虽然”,又如:While the work was difficult, it was interesting. 尽管工作有难度,但很有趣。/ While I understand what you say, I can’t agree with you. 虽然我理解你的意思,但我还是不同意。

另外,while表示对比的用法也值得注意(此时它表示“而”)。如:

The cost of living in Glasgow is among the lowest in Britain, ______ the quality of life is probably one of the highest. (天津卷)

A. since   B. when    C. as   D. while

四、when引导的状语从句

对于when的用法,同学们最熟悉的是表示“当……的时候”。如:

—Where’s that report?

—I brought it to you ______ you were in Mr. Black’s office yesterday. (北京卷)

A. if    B. when   C. because  D. before

【解析】答案选B。将四个选项逐一填入空格处,只有填when时,意思最通顺。句意为:当你昨天在布莱克先生办公室时我就带给你了。

但是when还有一个用法,就是表示“既然”。如:

Why do you want a new job ___D___ you’ve got such a good one already?

A. that   B. where  C. which  D. when

还有一点也需注意,就是when表示“这时(突然)”的用法。如:

1. I had just stepped out of the bathroom and was busily drying myself with a towel ___B___ I heard the steps. (湖南卷)

A. while  B. when  C. since   D. after

2. He was about halfway through his meal ___C___ a familiar voice came to his ears. (辽宁卷)

A. why   B. where  C. when  D. while

 

五、unless引导的状语从句

unless的意思是“如果不……”“除非”,对于涉及unless的考题,一般只要能读懂句意,弄清语境,一般不会有问题。如:

1. Most birds find it safe to sleep in the trees, but ______ they have eggs or young chicks, they don’t use a nest. (湖南卷)

A. why  B. how C. unless   D. where

2. I won’t call you, ______ something unexpected happens. (全国I)

A. unless    B. whether     C. because   D. while

【解析】两道题都选unless,均表示“除非”。

六、until引导的状语从句

until的意思是“直到……时”“在……之前”,对于涉及until的考题,一般只要能读懂句意,弄清语境,一般不会有问题。如:

It is difficult for us to learn a lesson in life ___A___ we’ve actually had that lesson. (天津卷)

A. until     B. after       C. since      D. when

另外,还要注意not…until…这一句式(直到……才)。如:

“You can’t have this football back ___D___ you promise not to kick it at my cat again,” the old man said firmly. (广东卷)

A. because    B. since     C. when      D. until

七、once引导的状语从句

once的意思是“一旦”,对于涉及once的考题,一般只要能读懂句意,弄清语境,一般不会有问题。如:

1. You will be successful in the interview ______ you have confidence. (福建卷)

A. before     B. once       C. until        D. though

2. ______ environmental damage is done, it takes many years for the ecosystem (生态系统) to recover. (江苏卷)

A. Even if       B. If only      C. While    D. Once

【解析】两道题都选once,均表示“一旦”。

八、where引导的状语从句

where可以用于引导地点状语从句,其意为“在……的地方”,此用法许多同学都不是熟悉,但高考经常考查,应引起特别注意。如:

1. If you are traveling ______ the customs are really foreign to your own, please do as the Romans do. (天津卷)

A. in which  B. what   C. when    D. where

2. —Mom, what did your doctor say?

—He advised me to live ______ the air is fresher. (四川卷)

A. in where    B. in which     C. the place where      D. where

【解析】两道题都选where,均表示“在……的地方”。

状语从句

在复合句中修饰主句中的动词、形容词和副词的从句叫状语从句。

状语从句分为时间状语从句、地点状语从句、条件状语从句、比较状语从句、目的状语从句、结果状语从句、方式状语从句、让步状语从句和原因状语从句等。状语从句如果放在主句前通常用逗号分开。

 

高考重点:

1、状语从句的各种类型,并正确使用从属连词

2、状语从句中的时态表达法

第一节 知识点概述

一、时间状语从句

由连接词when, as, while, whenever, after, before, till (until), since, once, as soon as (或the moment ), by the time, no sooner … than, hardly (scarcely) … when,等引导. 如果主句用一般将来时,从句应用一般现在时。如:

When it rains, it will be cold.

Hardly had I got home when it began to rain.

The moment the bell rang, all the students rushed out.

二、地点状语从句

地点状语从句由where, wherever等引导。如:

Please make a mark wherever you have questions.

  Where there is a will, there is a way.

Wherever I am I will be thinking of you.

三、条件状语从句

由连接词if, as long as, on condition that , supposing 等引导。

如果主句用一般将来时,从句应用一般现在时。如:

 

As long as you keep on trying, you’ll certainly get good marks.

We will let you use my car on condition that you use it properly.

四、比较状语从句

由连接词as…as、than、not so…as…等引导。如:

His English is much better than mine.

His health is not so good as before.

五、目的状语从句

由so that , in order that , lest , in case , for fear that 等引导的从句的谓语动词常与can , may , could , might , should 等情态动词连用。如:

Take an umbrella in case it should rain.

Ask him to hurry up in order that he can catch the early bus.

六、结果状语从句

由that, so that…或such…that引导。如:

It is such a difficult problem that nobody can work it out.

七、方式状语从句

引导方式状语从句的从属连词有as,(just)as…so, as if /though. As引导的方式状语从句通常位于句首。As在句中带有比喻的含义,意思是“正如……,就像…… ”。如:

It looks as if the workers may finish it soon.

  As water is to fish so air is to man.

八、让步状语从句 

由连接词though, although, even if , even though, as 等引导。但要注意从句用了though引导,主句就不能再用表示并列的but,但是 though 和yet可连用。如:

Although it’s raining, the farmers are still working in the fields.

Boy as he is, he knows a lot. 

另外 whether…or... 意思是:“ 不管……都 ”如:

Whether you believe it or not, it is true. 不管你相不相信,这都是真的。

还应注意 "no matter +疑问词" 或"疑问词+后缀ever"

   No matter what happened, he would not mind. 不管发生什么事,他都不介意。

   Whatever happened, he would not mind. 无论发生什么,他都不介意。

        替换:no matter what = whatever

           no matter who = whoever

           no matter when = whenever

           no matter where = wherever

           no matter which = whichever

           no matter how = however

   注意:no matter 不能引导主语从句和宾语从句。

(错)No matter what you say is of no use now.

(对)Whatever you say is of no use now.  (Whatever you say是主语从句)

(错)Prisoners have to eat no matter what they're given,

(对)Prisoners have to eat whatever they're given.  

九、原因状语从句

由because , since , as , for , now that 等引导.如:

As the weather is fine, we decide to climb the Yuntai Mountain.

 

第二节 实战演练

一、复习时需注意的要点

1、hardly/scarcely…when/before, no sooner…than 和as soon as都可以表示"一…就…"的意思,如:

I had hardly / scarcely got home when it began to rain. 

I had no sooner got home than it began to rain. 

As soon as I got home, it began to rain. 

注意:如果hardly, scarcely 或no sooner置于句首,句子必须用倒装结构:

Hardly / Scarcely had I got home when it began to rain.

No sooner had I got home than it began to rain.

2、在时间状语从句、条件状语从句和让步状语从句中,主句用一般将来时,从句用一般现在是表将来。

When it rains, it will be cold.

  If it is sunny tomorrow, we will go for a picnic.

3、as, when 引导短暂性动作的动词。

Just as / Just when / When I stopped my car, a man came up to me.

当从句的动作发生于主句动作之前,只能用when 引导这个从句,不可用as 或 while。

例如:When you have finished your work, you may have a rest.

若从句表示"随时间推移",连词能用as,不用when 或while。

As the days went on, the weather got warmer and warmer. 

5、as, though 引导的倒装句

as / though引导的让步从句必须把表语或状语提前(形容词、副词、分词、实义动词提前)。句首名词不能带任何冠词。如句首是实义动词,助动词放在主语后。如果实义动词有宾语和状语,随实义动词一起放在主语之前。

例如:Child as /though he was, he knew what was the right thing to do.

 

Try hard as he will, he may fail again.

 

6、比较until和till

此两个连词意义相同。肯定形式表示的意思是"做某事直至某时",动词必须是延续性的。否定形式表达的意思是"直至某时才做某事"。动词为延续性或非延续性都可以。 

正确使用这两个连词的关键之一就在于判断句中的动词该用肯定式还是否定式。

  肯定句:

 I slept until midnight. 

Wait till I call you. 

(在肯定句中可用before代替 Let's get in the wheat before the sun sets.)

  否定句:

 She didn't arrive until 6 o'clock.  

 Don't get off the bus until it has stopped.   

 I didn't manage to do it until you had explained how.  

1)Until可用于句首,而till通常不用于句首。

Until you told me, I had heard nothing of what  happened.   

  2)Until when 疑问句中,until要放在句首。

---Until when are you staying?  

---Until next Monday.  

 注意:否定句可用另外两种句式表示。

(1)Not until …在句首,主句用倒装。

Not until the early years of the 19th century did man know what heat is.  

Not until I began to work did I realize how much time I had wasted.   

(2)It is not until… that…

7、有些时间、地点、条件、方式或让步从句,如果从句的主语与主句主语一致(或虽不一致,是it),从句的谓语又包含动词be ,就可省略从句中的“主语 + be”部分。

e.g. When (he was) still a boy of ten, he had to work day and night.

If (you are) asked you may come in.

If (it is) necessary I’ll explain to you again.

 

 

 

二、历届高考试题分析

 

例1、Generally speaking, _________ according to directions, the drug has no side-effect.

A. when taking      B. when taken         C. when to take      D. when to be taken

答案为B

【解析】  这是一个由when引导的时间状语从句,原句应为“Generally speaking ,when it is taken according…”。由于take用被动时,主从句主语一致,因此从句中的it was可以被省略,简化为when taken…分词短语作状语,而选A、C时则缺乏主语。译文:通常地说,当这药按照指导说明被服用的话是没有副作用的。

 

例2、—Dad, I've finished my assignment.

—Good ,and _________ you play or watch TV ,you mustn't disturb me.  

A. whenever      B. whether         C. whatever      D. no matter

答案为B。

【解析】  no matter不能直接引导让步状语从句,应用no matter + wh族疑问词方可,故排除D;尽管A、C都有“无论”的意思,但只有B项whether可与or连用,表示选择,即“无论你玩还是看电视,不许打扰我”。  

 

例3、The famous scientist grew up _______ he was born and in 1930 he came to Shanghai.

A. when      B. whenever      C. where      D. wherever

答案为C。

【解析】  where引导的是地点状语从句。译文:这位著名的科学家在他的出生地长大,1930年他来到上海。因为在从句中有表示时间的介词短语in 1930,所以可以排除when和whenever; wherever引导让步状语,意思是“无论在哪里”,与句意不符。

 

例4、________, I have never seen anyone who's as capable as John.

A. As long as I have traveled       B. Now that I have traveled so much

C. Much as I have traveled        D. As I have traveled so much

答案为C。

【解析】  这是一个让步状语从句。as在引导让步状语从句时,要把形容词或副词放在它的前面。如果是名词,一般不加冠词。如:Child as he is, he has learned two thousand new words .As long

 as“只要……”引导条件状语从句;Now that“既然”引导原因状语从句;As“因为”引导原因状语从句。译文:虽然我走过了那么多地方,我从来没有见过像约翰这样有能力的人。  

 

例5、In such dry weather, the flowers will have to be watered if they________.

A. have survived    B. are to survive     C. would survive    D. will survive

答案为B。

【解析】  这是一个条件状语从句,主句用了一般将来时态。在条件状语从句中,一般不能使用将来时,但能和be to do的形式连用,所以应填are to survive。译文:在如此干旱的天气里,如果你想要花成活,就得给它们浇水。

 

例6、The WTO cannot live up to its name _____ it does not include a country that is home to one fifth of mankind.

A.as long as         B.while         C.if         D.even though

答案选C。

【解析】  从句子意思可知,是一个条件状语从句。as long as“只要……”引导条件状语从句经常用肯定句,所以要填if。译文:如果WTO不包括一个占人类五分之一的国家,它就名不符实了。

 

例7、She found her calculator  ________ she lost it.

A. where          B. when         C. in which         D. that

答案为A。

【解析】  这是一个地点状语从句,意思是“东西是在丢的地方找到的。”in which用于定语从句中,其前必须有先行词。这个句子中没有先行词,所以不能填in which。  

 

例8、—I'm going to the post office.

— ________you're there, can you get me some stamps?

A. As     B. While    C. Because    D. If

答案为B。

【解析】  while引导时间状语从句,意思是“当……时”。这句话的意思是“当你在那儿的时候,是否能给我买一些邮票?”as虽然也可以引导时间状语从句,但其意思是“一边……一边……”;because引导的是原因状语从句;if引导的是条件状语从句,对方已经说明要到邮局去,不能再作假设。

 

 例9、You should make it a rule to leave things ________you can find them again.

A. when         B. where         C. then         D. there

答案为B。

【解析】  where引导地点状语从句。这句话的意思是“你应该作出一个规矩,把东西放在你能再找到它们的地方。”  

 

例10、We'll have to finish the job, ________.

A. long it takes however               B. it takes however long

C. long however it takes               D. however long it takes

答案选D。

【解析】  however引导让步状语从句。要用陈述句的语序。

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