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素心守拙

那怕老态龙钟时,也愿保持一颗天真的心。

 
 
 

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英语的十种否定转移现象  

2012-03-07 20:00:55|  分类: 英语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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   否定的转移是指英语否定句在句中某一部分(常在谓语部分),但在语义上却是否定另一部分的现象。翻译这类句子时不要单纯依赖语法分析,而应从语义上分析,根据上下文理解句意。例:

He doesn’t teach because teaching is easy for him. 他之所以教书,并不是因为他觉得教书轻松。

John didn't attend the meeting because he was ill.约翰没有出席会议, 因为他病了。

 

  以上句子是否采用“否定转移”以译文意思合乎逻辑为准则。

 

一、在表示“看法”的谓语动词上的否定形式,语义上却是否定后面的宾语从句。

此类动词有:

think, believe, suppose, imagine,

expect, anticipate, fancy, consider, find

(感到), guess,be supposed to, calculate,

figure, reckon。


I don't believe I've met you before.  我认为我没有见过你。
 I don't think you will be late. 我认为你不会迟到。
I don't suppose he cares, does he? 我看他不在乎,对吧?
He doesn't expect we need worry. 他认为我们不必着急。
I don’t recon she is old enough to go to school. 我认为她还没到上学的年纪。

   注:上述表示“看法”或“判断”的动词出现以下情况时,其否定不发生转移: 

(1)用作插入语时:


 Li Lei, I think, won’t be angry with you. 我想李蕾不会生你的气。
 Tom, I suppose, won’t be against it. 我猜想汤姆不会反对。

(2)这些动词跟其他另一个动词一起做并列谓语时:

  I believe and hope he won’t do that. 我相信并且也希望他将不会那样做。

(3)用于疑问句时:

  Do you think it is not going to rain? 你认为天不会下雨吗?

(4)主句中添加情态动词can't, mustn't, wouldn't时:


You mustn’t think he’s stupid.  你不应该认为他愚蠢。
I wouldn't have imagined that you would be here.我不曾想到你会在这儿。
I can’t imagine how he could survive that car accident.我想象不出在那次车祸中他是怎样活命的。

(5)think , expect 作料想讲时:


I didn’t expect I’d meet you here. 我没料到会在这里碰上你。 
We didn’t think he is such a selfish man. 我们没料到他是这样一个自私的人。 

(6)suppose , think 用于祈使句式或被副词修饰时:


Don’t suppose you have passed the exam, for this is only a part of the exam.别以为你通过了考试,这仅仅是考试的一部分。 
I simply don’t think you will give me a hand when I’m in difficulty.我根本不指望你在我困难的时候能帮助我。 
 I really don’t think it’s necessary for us to go there now.我的确不认为我们有必要去那儿。
 I feel strongly that he shouldn’t do such a thing. 我强烈地认为他不应该做那样的事。

(7)上述动词所接的宾语从句中如有all , every , many , both 等表全体意义的词或副词时:


I don’t believe both of them are innocent. 我不相信他们两个都是清白的。 
I never expect all the students will do the exercises after classes.我从不抱希望于所有学生都会在课外做作业。 
We don’t consider everybody in our class is interested in this topic.我们并不认为班里的每个人都对这个话题感兴趣。 

(8)由于cannot help,  ought not, need not,not at all 等短语的关系而把I think 隔离:


I should have thought sometimes you couldn’t help thinking of the past. 我应该想到你会禁不住想起过去。
I think you ought not to walk at night alone, Mrs. Moore.
I think you need not be impolite to her,as well as to her son.
"I think the angel are not at all in heaven." Mr.Esmond said."

 

二、在表示“感觉”的谓语动词上d 否定形式,语义上却否定表语部分。

   此类动词有:

appear, seem, feel, sound, taste, smell, as if,feel , look ,sound,,feel like,look like.


The old streets don’t appear deserted. ( not deserted.) 老街看样子还没被废弃。 
I’m not feeling very well today. My head aches.  ( not very well … ) 我今天感到不怎么舒服,头痛。 
The food doesn’t taste fresh.  ( not fresh . ) 食物偿起来不鲜。 
It doesn’t seem that they know where to go. 看来他们不知道往哪去。
It doesn’t appear that we’ll have a sunny day tomorrow. 看来我们明天不会碰上好天气。

 

三、seem, prove, happen 与不定式构成复合谓语,形式上否定谓语,语义上否定不定式。


The president didn’t happen to attend that meeting.  (happen not to attend … )
董事长碰巧没参加那次会议。 
Your answer doesn’t seem to be right. (seem not to be ) 你的答案看起来似乎不正确。 
Jack doens't seem to like you.(=Jack seems not to like you)杰克看来不喜欢你。
The news didn't seem to be true. 这个消息好象并不是真的。

 

四、pretend , remember 的宾语为非谓语动词时,形式上否定谓语,语义上否定宾语,即非谓语动词。


My Italian friend didn’t pretend to see her tutor in the dining room. (pretend not to see … )我的意大利朋友在餐厅里假装没看见她导师。
I couldn’t remember having carried my wallet out. (否定having …) 我记得不曾带钱包出门。

 

五、形式上否定谓语,语义上否定宾语补足语。


I never knew him to carry money because he never had any use of it.我知道他身上从不带钱,因为他从不需要钱。
We do not consider melting or boiling to be chemical change. (not to be … )我们认为熔化和沸腾不是化学反应。 
Seeing a ball flying, we don’t expect the ball to fly forever. (not to fly …)看到球飞时,我们认为它不会永远飞下去。
 I don’t think math difficult. 我认为数学不难。
 I don’t find the story interesting.  我认为这个故事没有趣。
 I don’t expect so.  我认为不会。

 

六、在“It is / was likely / probably + 从句”中,形式上否定谓语,语义上否定从句。

- It isn't likely that it will rain tomorrow. 看起来明天不会下雨。

- It isn't probable that he will come here today. 他今天也许不会来这里了。

 

七、形式上否定谓语,语义上否定状语或状语从句。

- He doesn't go to school by bus but on foot. 他不是步行去上学, 而是坐公共汽车。

- Don't judge a man by his appearance. 不要以貌取人。

  - Don’t read in the sun. 不要在阳光下看书。

- Don’t talk with your mouth full of food. 不要口里含着食物说话。

- The ant is not gathering this for itself alone. 蚂蚁不只是为自己采食。

- Let’s not talk about it here. 我们别在这里谈吧。

- This great victory has not been won easily.  这个伟大的胜利赢来得并不容易。

- I didn't know his name until yesterday.  (not ... until) 我直到昨天才知道他的名字。

- He didn't take the boy from the tracks to safety to win his own fame.but to benefit the boy's parents.

他把男孩从铁轨上抱到安全地带,不是为了获得个人的名誉,而是为了孩子的父母。

注:含有not … because (of) 的句子,情况较复杂,需根据逻辑、语境和常识进行判断是否需要作否定转移,如需转移的话,往往是由否定谓语转为否定状语。例如: 

- I don’t teach because teaching is easy for me. 我教书并不是因为我觉得教书轻松。 

- The engine didn’t stop because the fuel was used up.  发动机并不是因为油用完而停车的。 

- He didn’t go to class because he was sick. 他没去上课,因为他生病了。 (这句话不需作否定转移)

- The manager didn’t give a speech because he felt painful in his throat. 经理没发表讲话,因为他喉咙痛。 

- She didn’t call you because she loved you. 这个句子可能出现两种理解: 

A. 她给你打电话并非因为她爱你。(发生了否定转移) 

B. 她没给你打电话是因为她爱你。(未发生否定转移) 

     到底哪种理解正确,我们无法从逻辑意义上进行辨别,这时我们只有借助语境即上下文来分析了。

 

八、表示信念、看法、愿望的名词充当主语从句的表语时,形式上否定谓语,语义上否定主语从句。这类词有:hope, thought, view, opinion , wish,  expectation, belief, plan 等。 

- It is not our expectation that you will suffer a lot from that.  (will not suffer … )

我们希望你不要为那事受太多苦。 

- It is not my opinion that you spend much time on computer games.  (do not spend … )

我的看法是你不要花太多时间玩电脑游戏。 

- It is not their plan that their homework is done on Sunday. 他们计划星期天不做家庭作业。 

 

九、含有全体意义的代词和副词作主语或宾语时,形式上否定谓语,语义上否定主语或宾语,表示部分否定。这类词有:all, both, every, everybody, everything, everywhere, always, altogether, entirely,wholly。

 - All the people didn't know the truth.  (Not all the people knew the truth.)

并非所有的人都知道事情的真相。

- All that glitters is not gold.  发光的不总是金子。

- Both the children are not clever.  (Not both the children …) 两个孩子并不都聪明。 

- Everybody, it is true, wouldn’t like it.  ( Not everybody …) 的确不是人人都喜欢它。 

- I don’t know all of them.  (not all of them) 对于他们我不是个个都认识的。 

- I don’t like both of them.  (not both of them.) 这两本小说,我不是都喜欢。 

注:当all 与can not 或 won’t 构成否定句式时,其否定不再发生转移,而表示全部否定。

- All the foreigners can not pass the borders without visas. 所有外国人没有签证均不能过境。 

- All the treatment won’t make any help for her disease. 所有的治疗对他的疾病都无用。 

 

十、"否定主句+肯定式方式从句" 中,主句和从句意思正好相反。例:

- Whales are not fish, as many people think. 鲸不是鱼,而许多人却认为鲸是鱼。

 

十一、主语是否定特征时,翻译应根据具体情况确定。否定可以转移,也可以不转移。例:

- Nobody who has ever seen good-quality color television can ever be completely happy with black and white again. 看过高质量彩色电视的人再也不可能对黑白电视感到满足了。

 

 (本文选自岸江新浪博客)

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