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素心守拙

那怕老态龙钟时,也愿保持一颗天真的心。

 
 
 

日志

 
 

新课标必修1--选修8课文二轮复习主要句型整理(二)  

2012-03-03 16:45:30|  分类: 英语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |
B5U1
1.So many thousands of terrified people died every_time there was an outbreak. 因此每次暴发(霍乱)时,就有大批惊恐的人死去。
这是由名词词组 every time 充当连词的时间状语从句,意为“每当……”,相当于 when。某些表达时间的名词词组可直接充当连词,即“名词连词化现象”。常见的有:
 (1)不定代词+time 如:any time, each time...
(2)序数词+time 如:the first/last time...
(3)the+瞬时名词 如:the minute/moment/instant
(4)the+时间名词 如:the day/night/month/time...
①He brings her flowers every time he goes to see her.
他每次去看她都给她带花。
②The first time he did the experiment, he succeeded.
他第一次做实验就成功了。
③I‘ll give him your message the minute he arrives.
等他一到,我就把你的口信给他。
④He bought a computer the day he got his salary.
他发工资那天买了一台电脑。
 [即境活用1] The boys ran off______ they saw the owner of the orchard (果园).
A.at times     B.the hour
C.the moment     D.at once
答案:C
解析:句中 the moment 引导时间状语从句,相当于 as soon as。
2.Only_if you put the sun there did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense. 只有当你把太阳放在中心位置上,天空中其他行星的运动才能说得清楚。
only 修饰副词、介词短语或状语从句,放在句首时,句子要部分倒装,即把助动词、情态动词或系动词 be放在主语之前。
①Only then did I realize the mistakes I had made.
只有在那时我才意识到我所犯的错误。
②Only in this way can you make progress.
只有以这种方式你才能取得进步。
③Only when the war was over in 1949 was he able to get back home.只有在1949年战争结束时他才能回家。
拓展:if only要是……该多好,但愿。if only从句可单独使用,这时要用虚拟语气:表示与过去相反的愿望用 had done;与现在相反的愿望用 did/were;表示与将来相反的愿望用 “would/could/might+动词原形”。
①If only I had gone to Beijing.
我要是去了北京就好了。
②If only he could come tomorrow.
他要是明天能来就好了。
 [即境活用2] ______both sides accept the agreement will a lasting peace be established in this region.
A.Only if      B.Unless
C.If only      D.As long as
答案:A
解析:主句中用了“will+主语+be”倒装结构,故选 Only if。
B5U2
1.Although, nationwide, these cities are not as large as those in China, they have world-famous football teams and some of them even have two! 虽然,全国性的,这些城市不如中国的城市大,但是它们拥有世界著名的足球队,有的城市甚至有两支!
those 在此为代词,用于表示比较的句型中,代指前面提到的复数名词 cities。
辨析:one/the one/ones/the ones/that/those/it
这几个词都用来指代前面提到的名词,但是所指内容不同。
(1)one 代替上文提到的某个可数名词,表示泛指意义,一般指同类事物中的任何一个;而 the one代替上文提到的某个可数名词单数,表示特指。
(2)ones 代替上文提到的可数名词复数形式,表泛指,一般指同类事物中的一些;而 the ones指代上文提到的可数名词复数形式,表示特指。
 (3)that 用来代替上文提到的名词,可以是可数名词单数形式,也可以是不可数名词,表示特指。如果代替可数名词单数形式,可以与 the one互换。
(4)those是 that的复数形式,代替上文提到的可数名词复数形式,表示特指,可与 the ones 互换。
(5)it代替前面的同一事物或同一个人。
①I want to buy a house, one with a large garden.
我想买一座房子,一座带有大花园的房子。
②The little boy doesn't like this apple; he wants the red one.
小男孩不喜欢这个苹果,他想要那个红的。
③I bought some new chairs. The old ones should be thrown away. 我买了新椅子,那些旧的也该扔了。
④The bike is cheaper than that made in our factory.
这自行车比我们厂生产的要便宜。(that=the one)
⑤The population of China is larger than that of Japan.
中国的人口比日本的多。(that 不用 the one 代替)
⑥The cars made here are better than those made in my hometown. 这里生产的小汽车比我家乡生产的好。
⑦—Who is the person that shook hands with the foreigners? 那个和外宾握手的人是谁?
—It is our headmaster. 他是我们的校长。
 [即境活用1] (1)(2008?济南模拟)The language used in advertisement differs from ______ used in ordinary reading.
A.Which       B.what
C.that           D.it
答案:C
解析:代替前面的 the language应用 that。
 (2)(2007?陕西)—There is still a copy of the book in the library. Will you go and borrow ______?
—No, I'd rather buy ______ in the bookstore.
A.it; one      B.one; one
C.one; it      D.it; it
答案:A
解析:第一空用 it指代上文中提到的那一本书;第二空用 one相当于 a copy,泛指“一本”。
2.It_seemed_strange_that the man who had developed communism should have lived and died in London.这似乎是一件怪事:这位发展了共产主义的人竟然在伦敦生活过,并且在伦敦去世。
It seems/is strange that...“……有点奇怪”,that 从句常用虚拟语气,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,should 意为“竟然”,表示对过去发生的事情感到惊讶。
拓展:在 “It is natural/important/necessary/a pity/a shame+that 从句”结构中,从句中的谓语动词也用“should+动词原形”结构;should 在这些句型中表示惊讶、气愤、惋惜等情感。
①It was strange that he should have said that!
他竟然说那样的话,真是奇怪!
②It‘s a pity that he should fail to grasp the chance when it arose.
机会出现时,他竟然没有抓住,真是遗憾。
 [即境活用2] —You just think of yourself! You kept me waiting for at least three hours.
—I am sorry that you ______ think so.
A.would      B.could
C.should      D.might
答案:C
解析:考查情态动词。答句句意:很抱歉你竟然这么想。should 有“竟然”的意思。
B5U3
1.However, I lost sight of Wang Ping when we reached what looked like a large market because of too wany carriages flying by in all directions. 然而,当我们到达一个看上去像是大市场的地方时,由于太多的客车朝四面八方飞奔,我看不见王平了。
what looked like... 是宾语从句,做 reached 的宾语。what 在宾语从句中做主语,表示地点。这时,同学们要注意,别把 what 误用做 where。因为 where是连接副词,在从句中做地点状语,而 what 是连接代词,在从句中做主语、宾语、表语或定语。what 引导名词性从句时,常含有事情、状况、言语、时间和地点的意味。
①What surprised me most was his way of speaking.
最让我吃惊的是他的说话方式。(what 表事情)
②She is no longer what she used to be.
她不再是以前的样子了。(what 表状况)
③We were all confused by what he said.
我们都被他说的话弄迷糊了。(what 表言语)
④He had driven for what seemed three hours.
他开车开了似乎三个小时了。(what 表时间)
⑤They finally reached what was called “a lonely island”.
他们终于来到了一个叫“孤岛”的地方。(what 表地点)
 [即境活用1] (1)(2008?北京)The companies are working together to create ______ they hope will be the best means of transport in the 21st century.
A.which B.that
C.what     D.who
答案:C
解析:句意:这些公司正在一起努力创造他们所希望的21世纪最好的交通方式。what 引导宾语从句,在从句中做主语。 which “哪一个”,who “谁”,that 在名词性从句中不充当成分。
 (2)(2007?浙江)Why not try your luck downtown, Bob? That's ______ the best jobs are.
A.where  B.what
C.when  D.why
答案:A
解析:句意:为什么不去市中心碰碰运气呢,鲍勃?在那个地方有最好的工作。where 在此引导表语从句,在从句中做状语。
2.Exhausted,_I slid into bed and fell fast asleep.
我感到累极了,爬上床很快就睡着了。
exhausted为形容词在句中做伴随状语。
①He spent seven days in the wind and snow, cold and hungry.他又冷又饿地在风雪中过了7天。
②For a moment she just stood there, unable to believe what had just happened.她在那儿呆呆地站了一会儿,简直不能相信刚才发生的事。
③He lay on the bed, awake.
他躺在床上,醒着。
④The boy lay, relaxed on the sofa.
小男孩放松地躺在沙发上。
⑤Confused by the new surroundings, I was hit by the lack of fresh air.新的环境把我弄得心烦意乱的,由于缺乏新鲜空气,我感到受不了。
 [即境活用2] (2008?北京)After the long journey, the three of them went back home, ______.
A.hungry and tiredly
B.hungry and tired
C.hungrily and tiredly
D.hungrily and tired
答案:B
解析:句意:长途旅游后,他们三个回到了家,又饿又累。本题考查形容词做状语,表示伴随或结果。
2. 形容词做状语
[应用2] (1)______ at her success, her parents took her to an expensive restaurant to celebrate.
A.To delight     B.To be delighted
C.Delighted     D.Delighting
答案:C
 (2)He lay in bed all night, ______.
A.wake      B.awake
C.waken      D.woke
答案:B
 (3)After his journey from abroad, Richard Jones returned home, ______.
A.exhausting     B.exhausted
C.being exhausted    D.having exhausted
答案:B
解析:形容词exhausted意为“(感到)精疲力竭的”,在此处做状语,说明主语的特征;exhausting意为“令人精疲力竭的”,常指事物;being exhausted仅能做状语,表示原因,此处与语境不符。
 (4)-Why did John ask me about the problem?
-______, he tried to find a better way to settle it.
A.Not to be satisfied    B.Not satisfied
C.Not being satisfied    D.Don’t satisfy
答案:B
解析:过去分词做原因状语,not satisfied相当于because he was not satisfied。A项,表目的;C项,强调动作,此处表状态;D项,不符合句子结构。
B5U4
10.so as to do sth. 以便,为了(做)……(引导目的状语,不放于句首)
in order to 以便,为了……(引导目的状语,可放句首)
so...as to 如此……以致(引导结果状语)
in order that 为了,以便……(引导目的状语从句)
so that 为了……;结果……(引导目的或结果状语从句)
so...that... 如此……以至于(引导结果状语从句)
 [即学即练10](1)He ran quickly ____________/______________ catch the last bus.
他跑得很快以便赶上末班车。
(2)We turned on the light __________/_________________we might see what it was.
=We turned on the light _____________ see what it was.我们把灯打开,以便看看它是什么。
(3)She is ______ angry ____________ say a word in front of him.她如此生气以致在他面前说不出一句话。
so as to/in order to//so that/in order that//so as to//so as to
提示:当用 so as to, in order to时,句子前后动作的主语须一致。否则,用 so that, in order that。
1.Never_will Zhou Yang(ZY) forget his first assignment at the office of a popular English newspaper.周扬将永远不会忘记他在一家流行的英语报社的第一次任务。
Not_only_am I interested in photography, but I took an amateur course at university to update my skills.
对摄影我不仅只是感兴趣,在大学里我还专修过业余摄影课来更新我的技术。
 (1)在以具有否定意义的副词、连词及词组开头的句子中,要用部分倒装。
(2)这些词和词组通常有:rarely, never, scarcely, no sooner, little, few, hardly, seldom, at no time, in no way, on no account, nowhere, nobody, not only等。
①Never before has our country been as united as it is.现在我们的国家空前团结。
②Not only does he know French, but also he is an expert at it.他不仅懂法语,而且很精通。
③Seldom does he go to the park at weekends.
在周末,他很少去公园。
 [即境活用1] ______I had a few problems to deal with.
A.Hardly have I arrived when
B.Hardly did I arrive than
C.Hardly had I arrived when
D.Hardly had I arrived than
解析:本题考查hardly...when句式的倒装语序。具有否定意义的词hardly位于句首,句子要用倒装语序,注意该句式只倒装主句,when从句不变。
答案:C
2.His discussion with his new boss, Hu Xin (HX), was_to strongly influence his life as journalist. 他与他的新老板胡新的讨论对他的记者生涯会产生重要影响。
be to do在句中表示不可避免将要发生或命中注定的事情,常译为“注定会……,一定……”。
归纳拓展:(1)be to do 句型有三层含义:
①表示“注定要发生……”
②预先安排好的计划或约定
③表示说话人的意图、职责、义务、命令等情态意义。
(2)be about to do sth. 表“马上要做某事,某事即将发生”,通常不与时间状语连用。
(3)be going to do sth. 表打算、想法或某种倾向,用于非正式文体。也可用来表示很可能发生的事或自然现象。
①The experience was to change her life.
这次经历必会改变她的一生。
②No one is to leave the building without the police's permission.没有警方的允许,没有一个人可以离开楼房。
③We are to finish the work before five this afternoon.
我们预定今天下午五点前完成任务。
④The book was not to be found.
那本书根本不可能找到。
 [即境活用2] None of them ever thought their products ______ such an important role in the computer market 20 years later.
A.were to play     B.played
C.would have played    D.had played
解析:考查 be to do 表示“注定会……,一定……”。
答案:A
3.Have you ever had a case where someone accused your journalists of getting the wrong end of the stick? 你们有没有过这样的情况:别人控告你们的记者,说他(她)们的报道完全失实?
case “情况”,在本句中为先行词,where 引导定语从句,在从句中做地点状语,相当于 in the case。当先行词为 case, point, situation, position等时,常用 where 引导定语从句。
①Can you think of a situation where this word can be used?你能想出能使用这个单词的语境吗?
②We are in a position where we may lose a large sum of money.我们在这种处境下可能会损失大量金钱。
③He has reached the point where a change is needed.
他到了必须改一改的地步。
 [即境活用3] Today, we'll discuss a number of cases ______ beginners of English fail to use the language properly.
A.which      B.as
C.why      D.where
解析:考查定语从句。当先行词是 case, point, situation 等词时,若定语从句中缺状语,用 where引导该从句。
答案:D
4.So we arranged an interview between the footballer and the man supposed to bribe him.因此我们安排这名球员和被认为行贿的人一起接受采访。
句中supposed to bribe him是过去分词短语做定语,修饰the man,相当于一个定语从句the man who was supposed to bribe him。
 (1)be supposed to do sth. 意为“应当做……”或“认为做……是必须的”。如:
①He is supposed to be here in about an hour.
他大约一小时后到。
②He was supposed to be a college graduate but he knew nothing of history.
按说他是大学毕业生,但他对历史一点儿也不知道。
(2)be supposed to have done sth. 则意为“理应做过某事(但可能没有做)”,这里有虚拟的含义。
Jack is supposed to have finished his work now.
杰克现在应当已经完成工作了。
拓展:suppose sb./sth. to be... 认为某人/某物是……
It is supposed that-clause 人们认为……
be supposed to be... 被认为/料想是……
be supposed to do sth. 被期望,应该;获准(用
于否定句)
I suppose so. 我认为是这/那样。
I suppose not. 我认为不是这/那样。
What do you suppose+陈述语序?你认为……?
Suppose/Supposing/Provided/Providing (that)
是表假设的条件状语从句,从句中将来的事不
用将来时而用一般现在时。
 [即境活用4] (2008?荆州模拟)The train ______ arrive at 11:30, but was an hour late.
A.was about to     B.was likely to
C.was supposed to    D.was certain to
解析:由题意“火车应该11:30到,但是却晚了一个小时”,表示“应该做……而未做”选 be supposed to。A将要;B可能;D一定。
答案:C
B5U5
1.If burns are on arms or legs, keep them higher than the heart, if_possible. 如果烫伤的部位在臂部或腿部,如果可能的话就要把手臂或腿抬到高于心脏的位置。

if possible 为状语从句的省略,其完整形式为 if it is possible。 ①If possible, do it by yourself.
可能的话,你自己做。
②If possible, I‘ll go to Beijing tomorrow.
如果可能的话,明天我要去北京。
拓展:if so 如果这样的话
if not 如果不是的话
if any 如果有的话
if necessary 如果必要的话
if ever 如果曾经有的话
 [即境活用1] —I hear Bob has been ill in hospital for days.—______, let‘s go to see him.
A.If ever   B.If any         C.If possible     D.If so
答案:D
解析:考查省略句 if so“如果这样的话”。
2.John was_studying in his room when he heard screaming. 约翰正在屋里学习,突然听到一声尖叫。
when 并列连词,意为“这时”,相当于 and then。 when 作并列连词用时,构成并列句,意为“就在这时,恰恰在这时”,多用在下列句型中:
...be doing...when... 正在……这时……
...be about to do...when... 正打算做……这时……
be just going to do...when... 正要……这时……
had just done...when... 刚做了……这时……
be on the point of doing...when... 正要……这时……
①He was sleeping when there was a knock at the door.
他正在睡觉,这时有人敲门。
②I was about to go out when someone knocked at the door. 我刚想出门,这时有人敲门。
③We had just begun to work when the machine broke down. 我们刚开始工作,这时机器坏了。
④The thief was on the point of putting his hand into the lady‘s handbag when the bus suddenly stopped.
小偷正要把手伸进那位女士的手提袋中,这时公共汽车突然停了。
 [即境活用2] The children were playing football happily on the playground ______ it began to rain heavily.
A.as       B.while       C.when   D.suddenly
答案:C
解析:句意为:孩子们正在操场上高兴地踢足球,这时天开始下起大雨。
X6U1
1.Among the painters who broke away from the traditional style of painting were the Impressionists, who lived and worked in Paris.
在这些脱离传统绘画风格的画家中就有生活和工作在巴黎的印象派艺术家们。
此句是一个倒装句,正常语序应为The Impressionists who lived and worked in Paris were among the painters who broke away from the traditional style of painting.此句为表语部分提前而引起的倒装。
①Sitting at the back of the room was a shy girl with two big eyes.
一个腼腆的长着两只大眼睛的女孩坐在屋子的后面。
②Gone are the days when women were looked down upon.妇女受歧视的年代一去不复返了。
 [即境活用1] Present at the meeting ______.
A.Mr. Liu was, who taught us English
B.was Mr. Liu, who taught us English
C.was who taught us English, Mr. Liu
D.Mr. Liu, who taught us English, was
答案:B
2.It is amazing that so many great works of art from the late 19th century to the 21st century are housed in the same museum. 令人感到惊奇的是同一家博物馆中收藏了那么多伟大的从19世纪晚期至21世纪的艺术作品。
it在句中做形式主语,真正的主语是 that 从句。it做形式主语,可以代替不定式、动名词、从句,置于句首,无意义,使句式结构更平衡。常见句型有:
 (1)It is important (easy, hard, difficult, possible, necessary...) for sb. to do sth.
(2)It is a pity (a shame, a pleasure, one's duty, bad manners...) for sb. to do sth.
(3)It is kind (nice, wise, brave, silly, polite, friendly...) of sb. to do sth.
(4)It's a pity (a shame, a fact, a wonder...) that...
(5)It is strange (obvious, true, good, possible, likely, clear...) that...
 (6)It seems (happens, turns out, occurs to me...) that...
(7)It is said (reported, decided, expected...) that...
①It is nice of you to give us so much help.
你这么帮助我们真是太好了。
②It‘s a pity that I didn’t think of it earlier.
真可惜我没有早想起来。
③It is reported that the production has been put into use.
据报道,这种产品已投入使用。
 [即境活用2]The foreign minister said, “______ our hope that the two sides will work towards peace.”
A.This is         B.There is
C.That is     D.It is
解析:it做形式主语,that引导的从句做真正的主语。
答案:D
X6U2
1.There are various reasons why people write poetry.
人们写诗有各种各样的理由。
reason why...。reason 的意思是“原因,理由”,后面的定语从句常用 why和 that, which 引导,后接同位语从句时要用 that引导,对 reason 的内容进行说明或解释,要注意它们所使用的场合。
①The reason why he failed the English exam was that he didn't learn it well.
他英语考试不及格的原因是他没学好。(why在定语从句中做状语)
②I don't believe the reason that/ which you gave me.
我不相信你给我的理由。(that和 which在定语从句中做 gave的宾语)
③We are not going for the simple reason that we can't afford it.
我们不去,原因很简单:我们负担不起。(that 引导同位语从句)
拓展:(1)That is why... 那就是……的原因。(强调结果)
(2)This is because... 这是因为……(强调原因)
(3)在 the reason why...is/was that 结构中,一般用 that 引导表语从句,而不用 because。
 [即境活用1](2008?四川模拟)The reason for his success is ______ he worked very hard.
A.why    B.that
C.because     D.for
解析:考查 the reason 的表语从句,由 that 引导。
答案:B
2.Some rhyme(like B) while others do not(like C).
有些诗押韵(像B),但也有些不是这样(像C)。
while的用法归纳:
(1)while 用做并列连词,构成并列句,意为“然而,但是”,相当于 and/but, 强调前后两种情况的对比或转折,此时while 一般位于句中。
(2)while 用做从属连词,引导时间状语从句,意为“当……的时候;和……同时”,此时的主从句谓语动作同时发生,从句谓语通常是延续性动词。
 (3)while 引导让步状语从句,常放在句首,意为“尽管”“虽然”,比 although或 though 语气要轻。
(4)while 引导条件状语从句,意为“只要”,其意思和用法相当于 as long as。while 可位于句首,也可位于句中。
(5)while 引导从句时,如果主从句的主语一致,且从句谓语又含有 be,则从句主语和 be可以省略。while 后可直接跟现在分词、名词、形容词或介词短语。
①You like sports, while I prefer music.
你喜欢体育,而我更喜欢音乐。
②I was reading the book while you were talking to me.
你对我说话的时候,我正在看书。
③While it is very cold today, we decide to go out for a walk. 尽管今天天气很冷,我们还是决定出去走走。
④While a spark of life remains, it is a doctor‘s duty to save the patient.
只要病人还有一线生机,医生就有责任抢救。
⑤You have to be very careful while (you are) driving.
你开车时必须很小心。
提示:while 引导时间状语从句时,指一段时间,不用来表示时间点;when引导时间状语从句时,既指时间段,也指时间点。如:
①When/While I was in middle school, I liked English very much.我上中学时非常喜欢英语。
②When he entered, I was watching TV. (不能用 while)当他进来时我正在看电视。
 [即境活用2](1)(2008年四川非延考区)In some places women are expected to earn money ______ men work at home and raise their children.
A.but          B.while
C.because          D.though
解析:while 在此句中意为“然而”,表对比。
答案:B
 (2)(2008?湖南卷)______the Internet is of great help, I don't think it's a good idea to spend too much time on it.
A.If     B.While
C.Because    D.As
答案:B
解析:while 引导让步状语从句,意为“虽然”。
 (3)(2008?上海卷)—Are you ready for Spain?
—Yes, I want the girls to experience that ______ they are young.
A.while   B.until
C.if    D.before
解析:while 引导时间状语从句,意为“当……时候”。
答案:A
X6U3
1.Why do_you_think some adolescents start smoking?
你认为有些青少年为什么会开始吸烟?
do you think 在句中做插入语。这种句式也可叫做双重疑问句。其构成有两种情况:
(1)做主语的疑问词+do you think/suppose/believe/imagine/say/suggest+谓语部分?
 (2)非主语的疑问词+do you think/suppose/believe/imagine/say/suggest+主语+谓语部分?
①Which film do you think will win the Golden Lion of the 66th Venice International Film Festival?你认为哪一部电影会赢得66届威尼斯国际电影节金狮奖?
②When do you suggest we hold a meeting to talk about the problem?你建议我们什么时候举行会议谈论这个问题?
③Who do you suppose we shall ask to attend our party?
你想我们会邀请谁来参加我们的宴会?
④Why do you think she didn‘t agree with our suggestions?你认为她为什么不同意我们的主意?
提示:(1)如果插入语是 do you suggest 时,句中的谓语要用 should+do或省略 should。
(2)do you know 不能作为插入语。如:
Do you know which team will win?
你认为哪个队会赢呢?
 [即境活用1] —I haven't heard from John for a long time.
—What do you suppose ______ to him?
A.was happening    B.to happen
C.has happened    D.had happened
解析:句中 do you suppose 是插入语,句子主干为 What has happened to him?
答案:C
2.I knew it_was_time_to quit smoking.
我知道我该戒烟了。
It's time to do... 到了干……的时间了。
It's time for sth. 到了……的时间了。
It's time (for sb.) to do sth. 到了某人干……的时间了。
It's (high/about) time+that 从句 到了某人干……的时间了。
It/This is the first/second...time that...
这是第一/二……次……
①It‘s time for lunch/to have lunch.
到吃午饭的时间了。
②It’s time that the kids were/should be in bed.
到了孩子们睡觉的时间了。
③This is the first time that I have been to the Great Wall. 这是我第一次参观长城。
提示:“It‘s (high/about) time+that 从句”中,从句的谓语动词用一般过去时或 “should+动词原形”,且 should不能省略。
“It/This is the first/second...time+that从句”中,从句的谓语动词要用完成时态,当句型为 It is the first time that时,从句谓语动词用现在完成时,当句型为 It was the first time that 时,从句谓语动词用过去完成时态。
 [即境活用2]  It is high time that we ______ action. Otherwise we ______ late.
A.take; will be     B.take; are
C.took; will be     D.took; would be
解析:本题考查虚拟语气。It is high time that... 结构中从句常用虚拟语气,即谓语动词用一般过去时或 “should+动词原形”。另外,otherwise 代替了 if虚拟条件句,根据句意,其后的句子应用表示与将来事实相反的虚拟语气。
答案:D
X6U4
1.Even_if we start reducing the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, the climate is going to keep on warming for decades or centuries.即使我们开始减少二氧化碳和其他温室气体的含量,在(未来)几十年或几个世纪内,气候仍会持续转暖。
even if=even though引导让步状语从句,意为“即使,纵使”。
①Even if we achieve great success in our work, we should not be conceited.
即使我们在工作中取得了巨大的成功,也不应该自满。
②Even if some foreigners speak ill of our Shenzhou Ⅶ spaceship, we still stick to the route of peaceful exploration of the space.
即便某些外国人对中国“神舟”七号说三道四,但我们仍将坚持和平探索太空的路线不动摇。
 [即境活用1] (1)Jack felt grateful to his teacher ______ he couldn’t find words to express it.
A.as if         B.even though
C.so that       D.now that
解析:句意:尽管无法用言语表达,但Jack仍对老师感激不尽。只有even though符合句意要求。
答案:B
 (2)The government should protect the old valuable buildings ______ they are not in harmony with the modern ones nearby.
A.even though      B.as if
C.so that       D.now that
解析:句意为:虽然这些古建筑与附近现代化建筑物不协调,但政府有必要保护它们。只有even though表示让步的意义。
答案:A
2.It is OK to leave an electrical appliance on so_long_as you are using it—if not, turn it off! 在使用电器设备时你可以把它一直开着,如果不用把它关掉!
as/so long as 意为“只要”,用来引导条件状语从句。
①As long as you can be back before 10 o‘clock, you can go out.
只要你10点钟前能回来,你可以外出。
②As long as you accept our conditions, we‘ll start working immediately.
只要你答应我们的条件,我们就立即开始工作。
归纳拓展:as far as “到达某个提及的地方”和“在……范围内;就……而言”。
as many as “多达……”“达到……之多”。与可数名词复数连用。
as much as “多达……”“达到……之多”。与不可数名词连用。
as soon as 作“一……就”解,引导时间状语从句。
as well as 不仅后者,前者也……;除……之外
as good as 和……一样好,实际上相当于……
 [即境活用2] (2008?全国Ⅰ)—Have you got any idea for the summer vacation?
—I don't mind where we go ______ there's sun, sea and beach.
A.as if      B.as long as
C.now that      D.in order that
解析:as long as “只要”,引导条件状语从句。
答案:B
X6U5
1.I was_about_to_go back to sleep when suddenly my bedroom became as bright as day.
我刚要睡,突然我的卧室亮如白昼。
be about to do sth. when... 正要干……这时……
①I was about to go out when the telephone rang.
我正要出门,这时电话铃响了。
②The meeting was about to be held when it began to rain.
会议正要开始,这时开始下雨了。
拓展:表示将要发生的动作,除了用一般将来时外,还有以下常见的结构和时态:
(1)be about to do 表示“即将(正要)做某事”,句中不再加时间状语,相当于 be on the point of doing sth.。
(2)be going to do 表示事先经过考虑、打算去做某事或有明显的迹象要发生某事,它可用于条件状语从句中表示将来,而 shall/will 则不行。shall/will 可表示临时作出决定。
 (3)be to do表示职责、义务、意图、约定、可能性或注定要发生的动作。
(4)英语中 begin, come, go, leave, sail, start, arrive, return, end, open, close 等表示一个预计将要发生的动作或情况,可用一般现在时表将来。这一动作时间比较固定,基本已成为规律。
(5)英语中 go, come, begin, start, leave, arrive, return, take off 等动词(词组)可用现在进行时代替将来时,表示一个预计将要发生的动作,这种用法要带一个表示将来的时间状语。
 [即境活用1] We were ______ to go out for camping ______ it began to rain.
A.hardly; than     B.around; as
C.about; when    D.nearly; while
解析:be about to...when... “正准备……这时……”,when作“这时”讲,它起并列连词的作用,连接两个并列的分句。
答案:C
2.The other two climbed down into the crater to collect some lava for later study, but this_being_my_first_experience,_I stayed at the top and watched them.另外两人爬下火山口去收集供日后研究用的岩浆,我是第一次经历这样的事,所以留在山顶上观察他们。
句中this being...是独立主格结构。
独立主格结构由“名词/代词+形容词/副词/现在分词/过去分词/不定式/介词短语/名词/数词”构成,在句中可做条件状语、时间状语、原因状语、伴随状语等。

①I heard that she got injured in the accident, my heart full of worry.(表示结果)
听说她在这场事故中受了伤,我内心充满了担忧。
②The rain having stopped, he went out for a walk.
雨停了,他出去散步。(表示原因)
③More time given, we should have done it much better.
如果给我们更多的时间,我们会做得更好。(表示条件)
④The huntsman entered the forest, gun in hand.
那位猎人手里提着枪走进了森林。(表示补充说明)
⑤Hundreds of people went out of the cinema, some in pairs, others alone.
成百上千的人走出电影院,有的结伴而行,有的独自出来。(表示方式)
提示:(1)独立主格结构一般用逗号同句子其余部分分开。
(2)表示虚义的逻辑主语 it有时可以省略不写。
(3)there be结构的独立主格结构是:there being+n.。
①(It) Being Sunday, there are no students in the school. 因为是星期天,学校里没有学生。
②There being another chance, he will try his best.
假如再有一次机会,他会尽力而为。
 [即境活用2] (2007?山东)The country has already sent up three unmanned spacecraft, the most recent ______ at the end of last March.
A.has been launched 
B.having been launched
C.being launched 
D.to be launched
解析:句中没有连接词,故不能用谓语动词;the most recent having been launched 为独立主格结构,由 at the end of last March 可知应用完成式。
答案:B
3.It_is_said_that this boy, who had a great gift for languages and persuasion, is the father of the Manchu people. 据说这个男孩子就是满族人的祖先,他具有语言天赋和很强的说服力。
It is said that... 据说……
It is reported that... 据报道……
It is believed that... 人们认为……
(1)以上结构中 it是形式主语,它所代替的是后面的 that引导的主语从句。以上结构均可转化为“主语+be+过去分词+不定式”结构,其中不定式根据需要有时态和语态的变化。如:
It is said that he has gone abroad.
=He is said to have gone abroad.
据说他出国了。
(2)有时以上结构还可转化为:“as+be+v.?ed,主句”结构,或者“what+be+v.?ed+is+that从句”结构。如:
It is known to all that China is a country with a long history.
=As is known to all, China is a country with a long history.
=What is known to all is that China is a country with a long history. 众所周知,中国是一个历史悠久的国家。
 [即境活用3] (2007?重庆)Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) ______ birds kept in cages in order to have the pleasure of setting them free.
A.is said to be buying
B.is said to have bought
C.had said to buy
D.has said to have bought
解析:考查 be said to do sth.这一结构。不定式动作发生在 be said 之前,所以要用不定式的完成式,所以答案为B。
答案:B
2. 独立主格结构的用法
[应用2] (1)The children went home from the grammar school, their lessons ______ for the day.
A.finishing      B.finished
C.had finished     D.were finished
解析:本题考查名词的独立主格结构。名词短语their lessons和动词finish之间是被动完成关系,故用过去分词finished。
答案:B
 (2)-Wow! It snowed last night. What a nice world!
-You’re right. But it’s more difficult to find my missing keys with snow ______ the ground.
A.covered      B.cover
C.to cover      D.covering
解析:本题考查with复合结构做宾补的非谓语动词形式。snow和cover在逻辑上是主谓关系,因此此处用现在分词。
答案:D
 (3)He ran after the dog, ______.
A.stick in his hand    B.stick in hand
C.a stick in his hand    D.having a stick in hand
解析:由“名词+介词短语”构成的独立主格结构中,当介词是in时,其前后的两个名词均不加任何成分(物主代词或冠词),但with的复合结构不受此限制。C项中缺少with,故可排除。B项是独立主格结构做伴随状语。
答案:B
 (4)The boys were happily making a snowman, ______ with cold.
A.their faces red 
B.their faces were red
C.their faces turned red 
D.their faces to be red
解析:本题考查由“名词+形容词”构成的独立主格结构做伴随状语。
答案:A
 (5)He was so tired that he fell asleep quickly, the light over his bed ______.
A.burn      B.went on
C.lighted      D.on
解析:考查“名词+副词”构成的独立主格结构做伴随状语。选项中,on为副词,表示“已连接,处于工作状态或使用中”。因此,此处应选D做伴随状语。
答案:D
X7U1
1.As_well_as going to the movies and football matches with my friends, I spend a lot of time with my pets.除了和朋友们去看电影、足球比赛之外,我也会花很多的时间和我的宠物一起玩耍。
as well as译为“也,和……一起”,在此句中相当于besides。注意as well as在使用时的主谓一致。
 (1)既……又……;也;以及;同……一样
①He gave me clothes as well as food.
他既给我食物,又给我衣服。
②This factory produces cars as well as trucks.
这个工厂既生产卡车也生产小汽车。
 (2)as well as可以用于同级比较。“和……一样好”,修饰动词。
①She sings as well as she plays.
她弹得好,唱得也好。
②He speaks French as well as English.
他英语和法语讲得一样好。
 (3)A as well as B结构做主语时,谓语动词的数要与A保持一致。
①The teacher as well as his students is doing an experiment in the lab.
老师和他的学生正在实验室里做实验。
②The students as well as their teacher are doing an experiment in the lab.
学生们和他们的老师正在实验室里做实验。
拓展:
as well单独使用于句尾表示“也”“既……,又……”,但是不能用于否定句。
He speaks English as well.他也讲英语。
He is a professor and a writer as well.
他是一位教授,也是一个作家。
 [即境活用1] The father as well as his three children ______ skating on the frozen river every Sunday afternoon in winter.
A.is going  B.go       C.goes      D.are going
答案:C
解析:as well as+n./pron.短语结构不影响句子的主谓关系,即句子的主语应是the father; 由every Sunday afternoon in winter可知应用一般现在时态。
2.Just accept them for who they are, and give them encouragement to live as_rich and full a_life_as you do.接受现实的他们并给予他们鼓励,让他们能像你们一样过得丰富多彩、充实美满。
as...as 引导状语从句,两个 as之间可以是 adj./adv. 也可以是n.,如果涉及数量可以用 as much/many+n. as...,或者 as+adj.+an/a+n. as...,此结构还可与 twice, three times, half 等倍数连用。
 ①This is as good an example as the other is.
这是一个像另一个一样好的例子。
②I can carry as much paper as you can.
你能拿多少纸,我也能拿多少。
拓展:as...as..., not so...as..., so...that..., too...to/for, how 如果与单数可数名词连用,它们的顺序一律是:as/so/too/how+adj.+a(an)+n....
①This is too long a journey for me.
这是一个对我来说太长的旅程。
②She is so lovely a girl that everyone likes her.
她是那样一个可爱的女孩,以至于每个人都喜欢她。
③How hot a day it is! 多么热的一天啊!
 [即境活用2] You know nursing is ______ a way of life.
A.as a much job as   B.as much a job as
C.as job a much as   D.a job as much as
答案:B
解析:考查 as+adj.+a+n. as结构。
X7U2
1.As she turned around, there_stood Gladys Claffern. 她刚一转过身去,就看到格拉迪斯?克拉芬站在那里。
There stands...倒装句。(1)there, here, now, then 等副词放在句首时,句子要完全倒装,谓语动词常用 come, go, be, lie, run 等。
 (2)表示方位的副词或介词短语置于句首时,句子也要完全倒装,句中的谓语动词通常是 come, go等表示动作的动词。
 (3)在上述全部倒装中,主语如为人称代词,则应放在动词前面。
①There goes the bell. 铃响了。
②Now comes your turn. 现在轮到你了。
③The door opened and in came a teacher.
门开了,进来一位老师。
④Away went the students. 学生们走了。
Away they went. 他们走了。
⑤Present at the meeting are some teachers and students. 一些老师和学生出席了会议。
 [即境活用1] —Look! There ______.
—Oh, there______.
A.comes the bus; comes it
B.comes the bus; it comes
C.the bus comes; it comes
D.the bus comes; comes it
答案:B
解析:考查全部倒装。注意主语是代词时,不倒装,故选B。
2.But even though Tony had been so clever, he would have to be rebuilt—you cannot have women falling_in_love_with machines. 但是,尽管托尼很聪明,他还得经过一番改造——你总不能让女人与机器相爱吧。
have sb. doing 意为“叫/让/使某人做某事或让某种情况发生”。宾语后面用现在分词做宾语补足语,表示宾语与现在分词表示的动作之间为主动关系,且动作正在进行或一直进行。won‘t have sb. doing 意为“不让某人做某事”。
①Don‘t have the baby crying! 不要让婴儿啼哭!
②You’d better have your car running slowly.
你最好把车子开慢点儿。
③I won‘t have you talking to your mother like that.
我不允许你这样与你妈妈说话。
拓展:(1)have sb. do 让某人做某事(do表示动作由 sb. 发出)
(2)have sb./sth. done 使某事被别人做(sb./sth. 与动词 do构成动宾关系)
(3)have sth. to do 有事要做(to do做后置定语修饰 sth.,该不定式的动作由主语发出)
 (4)have sth. to be done 有事要做(to do做后置定语修饰 sth.,但不定式的动作不是由主语发出的,而是别人)
①I‘ll have the gardener plant some trees.
我要让园丁种些树。
②Why don't you have your hair cut? 你为什么不理发?
③I have some clothes to wash.
我有些衣服要洗。(洗衣服是主语发出的动作)
④I have some clothes to be washed.
我有些衣服要洗。(洗衣服不是主语发出的动作,由别人来做)
 [即境活用2] You should understand the traffic rule by now. You‘ve had it ______ often enough.
A.explaining     B.to explain
C.explain              D.explained
答案:D
解析:句中 it指 the traffic rule,故用 have sth. done “使某事被做”。
X7U3
1.“Come_on,_Clancy. To the boat,”... “快点,克兰西。快到船上去。”……
Come on. 意为:“来!快!得啦!加油!”表示劝说、激励、不耐烦等语气。
①Come on! We don‘t have much time.
快点!我们的时间不多了。
②Oh, come on—you know that isn‘t true!
哦,得了吧,你知道那不是真的!
拓展:Come along! 快来!赶快!加把劲!
Come again. 请再说一遍!你说什么来着?
How come...? 怎么回事?怎么发生的?怎样解释?
when it comes to sth./to doing sth. 当涉及某事/做某事时
①If she spent five years in Paris, how come her French is so bad?
既然她在巴黎待了五年,她的法语怎么还会这样糟糕?
②When it comes to teaching students English, he has a lot to say. 当涉及教学生英语时,他有很多话要说。
③Come along! We‘re late already.
快点!我们已经迟到了。
④—She is an actress. 她是一个演员。
—Come again. 请再说一遍。(你说什么来着?)
 [即境活用1] —I‘m dead tired. I can’t walk any farther, Jenny.
—______, Tommy. You can do it!
A.No problem        B.No hurry
C.Come on     D.That's OK
答案:C
解析:Come on. “加油!”表示激励。 No problem. 没问题;No hurry. 别着急;That's OK. 没关系。
2.The fish didn‘t seem to mind me_swimming among them.
鱼儿好像并不介意我游在它们中间。
me 在句中用做 swimming 的逻辑主语,这叫做动名词的复合结构。
动名词的复合结构的其中一种形式是“物主代词或名词所有格+动名词”,在句中做主语、宾语、表语等。如果不是在句子开头,这个结构常常可以用名词的普通格(或人称代词的宾格)。
①His/Jack's not getting to the station on time made all of us worried.
他/杰克没准时到车站使得我们大家都很担心。(做主语)
②Do you mind my/me/Jack's/Jack leaving now?
我/杰克现在离开你介意吗?(做动词的宾语)
③Have you heard of my sister's winning the contest?
我妹妹在竞赛中获胜的事你听说了吗?(做动词短语的宾语)
④He left the city without our knowing it.
他离开这个城市我们大家都不知道。(做介词的宾语)
⑤What is most important is Tom's going there at once.
最重要的是汤姆立刻到那里去。(做表语)
注意:在下列情况中,动名词复合结构中的逻辑主语要用名词的普通格或人称代词的宾格:
(1)无生命的事物名词做逻辑主语时一般采用普通格形式。
(2)在口语和非正式语体中,只要不做主语常采用普通格或人称代词宾格。
 (3)逻辑主语是一个短语或有修饰语,一般用名词普通格或人称代词宾格。
(4)-s结尾的复合名词做逻辑主语时一般用普通格。
(5)不定代词或指示代词做动名词的逻辑主语时,一般不用或很少用所有格形式。
(6)集合名词、单复数同形的名词或变化不规则的复数名词做逻辑主语并同动名词一起做宾语时,一般用普通格。
(7)it 做逻辑主语时用宾格、所有格均可,但指时间时用宾格。
 [即境活用2] Do you mind ______ alone at home?
A.Tom leaving     B.Tom having left
C.Tom's being left    D.Tom to be left
答案:C
解析:mind 后接动名词做宾语,且动名词的逻辑主语是 Tom,表被动意义,故选C。
X7U4
1.But last weekend another teacher, Jenny, and I did_visit a village which is the home of one of the boys, Tombe.
但是上个周末, 我和另一个老师,珍妮,确实拜访了一个村庄,其中一个男孩汤贝的家就在那里。
“do/does/did+动词原形”可构成强调句。这种强调句只有一般现在时和一般过去时,且只对肯定的谓语动词进行强调,没有否定式和疑问式。do在句中要重读。注意在祈使句中使用时,往往不表示命令,而表示强烈的请求,有时表达更加客气的语气。
①He did come here yesterday.他昨天确实来这里了。
②We do often go to school by bus.
我们确实经常乘公交车去上学。
③Kate does like this game.凯特确实喜欢这个游戏。
④Do finish your homework on time.
一定要按时完成作业。
[即境活用1] Cars moved very slowly in the 1930s, but they ______ faster than in the 1920s.
A.were moving       B.did move
C.had moved     D.would move
答案:B
解析:did 强调动词 move 表示“确实开得比那时快”。
2.She was dying to see him again but what_if he didn’t want to see her? 她渴望再见到他,但如果他不想见她怎么办?
what if“如果……将会怎样;即使……又有什么关系”,为省略结构,相当于What shall we/I do if...? what if 中 what可看做是 what should sb. do (某人该怎么办)或 what does it matter (有什么要紧) 或 what would happen (将会如何)的省略。
①What if he gets angry?
倘若他生气该怎么办?
②What if they do not come?
即使他们不来又有什么关系呢?
拓展:(1)What for? “为什么?”相当于 Why?
—We‘ll hold a party this weekend.
我们要在这个周末开一个聚会。
—What for? 为什么呢?
(2)So what? 那有什么了不起/有什么关系?
—He says he doesn’t like you. 他说他不喜欢你。
—So what? 那有什么关系呢?
 (3)what about...……怎么样;……怎么办
What about inviting him here? 邀请他来这儿怎么样?
(4)guess what 告诉你一个消息/情况
Guess what! The boss is getting married.
告诉你个消息!老板要结婚了。
(5)What‘s up? 相当于 What’s the matter?
What‘s up? She is weeping over there.
怎么了?她正在那边儿哭呢。
(6)Now what?下一步会怎样?下一步怎么办?
 [即境活用2] ______we moved the sofa over there? Would that look better?
A.What about     B.What if
C.What for     D.How come
答案:B
解析:句意为:“如果我们把沙发挪到那边儿,你觉得怎么样?”What if...?“如果……怎么样?”
2. what if/what about/what’s like/so what/what‘s more
[应用2] (1)____________ some settings could endanger children?如果一些装置可能对孩子们构成危险,那该怎么办?
(2)I know Sally is your best friend. ____________?我知道萨莉是你最好的朋友。那又怎么样?
What if //So what 
 (3)______________ the new captain ______?新来的船长是个怎样的人?
(4)____________ going to Singapore for our holiday this year?今年我们去新加坡度假怎么样?
(5)We invited a new speaker and, ____________, he is happy to come.
我们邀请了一位新的发言人,而且,他很乐意来。
What’s//like//What about//what’s more
X7U5
1.It_was_the_first_time she had ever left her motherland. 这是她第一次离开祖国。
It/This/That is the first/second/third...time (that) sb. has/have done sth.
这是某人第一/二/三……次做某事。
①It is the first time that I have come to the Great Wall.
这是我第一次到长城。
②It was the second time that he had failed in the exam.
这是他第二次考试失败。
③It will be the first time that he has won the prize.
那将是他第一次获奖。
拓展:(1)the first time “第一次”,名词短语引导时间状语从句。如:
He was curious about everything the first time he went abroad.第一次出国他对什么都好奇。
 (2)for the first time “第一次”,介词短语在句中做时间状语。如:
When I met him for the first time, he was making a speech.我第一次见他时,他正在演讲。
 [即境活用1] I thought her nice and honest ______ I saw her.
A.first time     B.for the first time
C.the first time    D.by the first time
答案:C
解析:the first time 引导时间状语从句,意为“第一次”。
2.Besides, as_far_as_he_was_concerned,_what other people thought was not the most important thing.此外,他认为,别人的想法并不是最重要的。
as/so far as sb./sth. is concerned是固定句式,意为“在某人看来,就某人或某事而言”。类似短语还有:
so/as far as I can see 依我看来
so/as far as I know 就我所知
as far as the eye can see 就视线所及
as far as it goes 就……而论
as far as 那么远,直到,就……而言
so far=up to now 迄今为止
by far ……得多,最(修饰比较级或最高级)
①As far as I am concerned, this is the most important point.对我来说,这是最重要的一点。
②As far as money is concerned, she‘s hopeless.
她在金钱方面简直无可救药。
 [即境活用2] —Michael was late for Mr Smith's oral class this morning.
—How come? ______ I know, he never came late to class.
A.As far as     B.So far
C.By far      D.As far
答案:A
解析:as far as I know, 据我所知。
1.It's the first time...句式
[应用1] (1)I thought her nice and honest ______ I met her.
A.first time     B.for the first time
C.the first time     D.by the first time
答案:C
解析:the first time可引导时间状语从句。
 (2)-It’s the second time that I ______ to Shanghai.
-What great changes! It’s ten years since I ______ it last time.
A.have been; left    B.had been;left
C.am; had left     D.come; had left
答案:A
解析:在表时间的句式It be+time+since从句中出现了时间状语last time,故从句应用一般过去时,排除C、D两项,结合It be+the+序数词+time(that)从句时态特殊要求,可知A项为最佳选项。
2. besides的用法
[应用2] (1)I don’t mind picking up your things from the store. ______, the walk will do me good.
A.Sooner or later     B.Still
C.In time      D.Besides
答案:D
解析:besides副词,意为“况且,再说”。该句意为“我很乐意去商店把你的东西取回来。再说走一走对我自己也有好处”。根据题意,D项正确。
 (2)(2007?全国Ⅱ)Some people choose jobs for other reasons ______ money these days.
A.for      B.except
C.besides      D.with
答案:C
解析:考查考生对介词的理解。根据句意“在如今,人们选择工作除了钱还有其他原因”,表示“除了”,只有except与besides有此意。except为排除在外、不包括,而besides为包括在内,故用besides。
3. as far as...的用法
[应用3] (1)______ I can see, there is only one possible way to keep away from the danger.
A.As long as     B.As far as
C.Just as      D.Even if
答案:B
解析:逗号前后并非表示条件、让步关系,也不是用来加强语气。应用as far as I can see来缓和语气,表示“在我看来,只有一种可能脱离危险的办法”。
 (2)______ you can do what you like.
A.As long as I’m concerned
B.As far as I’m concerned
C.As far as I’m concerning
D.As soon as I’m concerned
答案:B
解析:本题考查了固定短语的用法。此句可译为:就我而言,你可以做你所喜欢做的。as far as one is concerned是固定短语,也可写成so far as one is concerned,表示“就……而言”。
X8U1
1.However, it_is_likely_that Native Americans were living in California at least fifteen thousand years ago.
然而,美洲土著人有可能在至少15 000年前就在加州生活着。
本句式中 it为形式主语,真正的主语为 that从句。
It is likely that... ……是可能的。此句型可转化为:Sb./Sth. be likely to do... 某人/物可能干某事。
①She‘s very likely to ring me tonight.
=It’s likely that she will ring me tonight.
她今晚很可能给我打电话。
②It‘s likely that it will snow tonight.
=It is likely to snow tonight.
今天晚上可能下雪。
 [即境活用1] Ronaldo was ______ to win the 100-meter hurdle race, but he fell to the ground and missed the chance.
A.possible    B.probable
C.likely        D.maybe
答案:C
解析:当 possible或 probable 做表语时,主语只能是事物或代词 it;而 likely 做表语时,主语可以是人,也可以是物。maybe 是副词,只能做状语,不能做表语。
2.It_is_believed_that before long the mix of nationalities will be so great that there will be no distinct major racial or cultural groups, but simply a mixture of many races and cultures.
过不了多久国籍间相混的程度将如此大以至于不再有明显的种族或文化团体,而仅仅是一个种族和文化的混合体。
本句用的句型是 It is believed that-clause。it 是形式主语,真正的主语是后面的 that-clause。
类似的结构还有:It be said/known/agreed/thought/supposed/reported+that-clause.
此句型可转化成:
(1)People say/know/agree/think/suppose/report+that-clause.
(2)Sb./Sth. be said/known/agreed/thought/supposed/reported+to do.
①It is believed that Mr Smith is innocent.=Mr Smith is believed to be innocent.
人们认为史密斯先生是无辜的。
②It is believed that Professor Johnson has finished his second novel.=Professor Johnson is believed to have finished his second novel.
人们相信约翰逊教授已完成了他的第二部小说。
 [即境活用2] The lake by the village is believed ______ a number of victims in the past 3 years.
A.to claim     B.to have claimed
C.claiming     D.being claiming
答案:B
解析:句意为“人们相信村子旁边的湖泊在过去的三年里已要了许多人的命”。在这种形式中,believe 后面不能跟 v.-ing形式;由 in the past 3 years 可知,事情是已发生的,因此,需用不定式的完成式与之相对应。
X8U2
1.Then_came the disturbing news that Dolly had become seriously ill.
接着传来了令人烦恼的消息——多莉得了重病。
 (1)表示方位、时间或方式的副词或介词短语,如here, there, now, then, up, down, in, away, off, out, in the room, on the wall等置于句首时,句子倒装。
①Look, here comes the bus.看,公共汽车来了。
②Out rushed the children.孩子们冲了出去。
③There goes the bell.铃响了。
 (2)本句中的news与that Dolly had become seriously ill是同位语关系。一个名词或代词后面有时可接一个单词、短语或从句,对前者做进一步的解释,说明它指的是谁或是什么,这就是同位语。
①We heard of the news that our team had won.
我们听说了我们队赢了这一消息。
②We must face the fact that we have run out of all the money.我们必须面对我们已花完了钱这一事实。
 [即境活用1] (1)In the dark forests ______, some large enough to hold several English towns.
A.stand many lakes     B.lie many lakes
C.many lakes lie     D.many lakes stand
答案:B
解析:表地点的介词短语放在句首时用完全倒装,表示某物位于某处用动词lie。
 (2)Nobody believed his reason for being absent from the class ______ he had to meet his uncle at the airport.
A.why      B.that
C.where      D.because
答案:B
解析:考查同位语从句。句意为:他没来上课,因他必须到机场接他叔叔,没人相信这个理由。his reason后接同位语从句,由for being absent from the class隔开,从句是个完整的句子,故选B项。
2.Did she die young because she was a clone?
因为她是克隆的,所以才早逝了吗?
young 为形容词,在句中做状语。
在描绘性文字中,形容词(短语)或形容词化的分词有时起状语作用,说明主句所述的原因、时间或主语所处境况或意义增补。
 (1)表原因
表原因的形容词(短语)或形容词化的分词多放在句首,句子的主语亦是其逻辑主语。表原因的形容词(短语)相当于原因状语从句。如:
Thirsty and hungry (=As he was thirsty and hungry), he went to a farmer‘s cottage to ask for something to eat.
由于又饥又渴,他来到一家农舍要点吃的。
 Frightened(=Because she was frightened), she asked me to go with her.
由于害怕,她要我跟她一起去。
 (2)表时间
形容词(短语)表主语动作发生的时间,放在句首。其作用相当于一个时间状语从句。如:
Ripe (=When they are ripe), the oranges taste sweet.
这些橘子熟了时,味道甜美。
(3)说明主语的境况或意义增补
形容词(短语)表示主语所处境况或意义增补时,常放在句末。相当于一个和前面句子并列的句子。如:
Holmes found the man lying on the floor, dead (=and he was dead). 福尔摩斯发现那个人躺在地板上,死了。
One woman was lying in bed, awake (=and she was awake). 有位妇女醒着躺在床上。
For a moment she just stood there, unable (=and she was unable) to believe what had just happened.
她在那儿呆呆地站了一会儿,不敢相信刚才发生的事情。
 [即境活用2] (2008?北京)After the long journey, the three of them went back home, ______.
A.hungry and tiredly    B.hungry and tired
C.hungrily and tiredly    D.hungrily and tired
答案:B
解析:本题考查形容词做状语。
X8U3
1.But once_picked_up,_they tried to bite me.
但是它们一被捡起来,就试图咬我。
 (1)once作为连接词引导时间状语从句时,后面可接现在分词或过去分词。
①Once opened, the museum will be very popular with the citizens.
博物馆一旦开放,肯定会受到市民的欢迎。(表被动)
②Once talking with him, you'll find him an easygoing man. 一旦与他交谈,你就会发现他是一个随和的人。(表主动)
 (2)once 引导的从句中,要用一般时代替将来时。
①Once you have grasped English, you'll be easy to get a well-paid job.
一旦你掌握了英语,你就会很容易找到一份报酬很高的工作。(现在完成时代替将来完成时)
②Once he arrives, we can start.他一到我们就可以开始。(一般现在时代替一般将来时)
 [即境活用1] (2007?福建) You will be successful in the interview ______ you have confidence.
A.before         B.once
C.until      D.though
答案:B
解析:考查状语从句。once “一旦”引导时间状语从句。before“在……以前”;until “直到……”;though“虽然”。
2.Remember to include one change to your invention in_case it doesn’t work the first time.记住对你的发明要有变化的余地,以防它第一次不起作用。
in case(以防)万一
in case 后可接从句,也可置于句末。
in case of 要是……;在……时候(后接名词或代词)
in this case 如果这样的话
in that case 如果那样的话
in any case 无论如何
in no case 决不(位于句首,句子应使用倒装语序)
①Take your umbrella in case it rains.
拿着你的雨伞以防下雨。
②In case I forget, please remind me of my promise.
如果我忘记了我的诺言,请提醒我。
 ③In case of fire, open this safety door.
一旦发生火灾,打开这扇安全门。
④In no case may you leave the baby alone at home.
你决不能把孩子一个人留在家里。
 [即境活用2] (2007?北京)Leave your key with a neighbor ______ you lock yourself out one day.
A.ever since     B.even if
C.soon after     D.in case
答案:D
解析:A项意为“自从……以来”,B项意为“即使”,C项意为“不久之后”,D项意为“以防;以免”。句意为“留一把钥匙给邻居,以免有一天你把自己锁在门外”。
X8U4
1.It‘s raining heavily now, isn’t_it?
现在雨下得很大,不是吗?
这是一个反意疑问句,使用反意疑问句需注意以下几点:
 (1)反意疑问句一般结构:“肯定陈述句+否定的附加问句”和“否定陈述句+肯定的附加问句”。
The clock is slow, isn‘t it?
这钟慢了,对不对?
We can’t take the book out, can we?
这些书我们不能拿出去,对吧?
 (2)回答这类问题时,答案是肯定的用 yes,否定的用 no。
You are not going out today, are you?
你今天不出去,是吧?
Yes, I am. (我今天要出去)
No, I am not. (我今天不出去)
He wasn't there that day, was he? 他那天不在那儿,是吗?
Yes, he was. (他在)
No, he wasn't (他不在)
 (3)如果陈述部分中含有 no, never, hardly, scarcely, seldom 等词,这部分就算否定,后边要用肯定的疑问尾句。
You have no classes tomorrow, have you?
你明天没课,是吧?
You were hardly twelve then, were you?
你那时几乎不到12岁,是吧?
 (4)当主语为 none, everyone, somecone, no one 等时,正式语体中常用 he,非正式语体中常用 they。
None of the boys can do it, can he?
没有一个男孩子能做这件事,不是吗?
Everyone enjoyed the party, didn‘t they?
每个人都在晚会上玩得高兴,不是吗?
(5)当主语为 nothing, something, anything, everything 等时,后面尾句的主语多用 it。
 [即境活用1] I don't think a warm winter always has a negative influence on our life, ______?
A.does it      B.don't I
C.hasn't it      D.do I
答案:A
解析:“I think/suppose/believe+that 从句”的反意疑问句的主语和谓语应与 that 从句一致。I don't think/suppose/believe that... 属于否定前移现象,因此其反意疑问句用肯定形式。
2.But they betray themselves every_time they open their mouths. 但他们每次开口说话就会露馅。
every time 等表示时间的短语可作为连词用,引导一个时间状语从句,这类词语还有:the instant, the moment, directly, the day, the year, next time, the first (second, third...) time 等。
①You‘re welcome to come back any time you want to.
你想什么时候回来,我们都欢迎。
②He called me the first time he came to Nanjing.
第一次来南京时,他给我打了电话。
③Next time you come, you’ll see him.
下次来时,你就会见到他。
 [即境活用2] Do not stop ______ you come to a word or a phrase you do not know.
A.for the first time    B.because
C.every time     D.since
答案:C
解析:考查 every time “每一次”引导时间状语从句。
2. 反意疑问句的用法
[应用2] (1)(2009?上海卷)Sally’s never seen a play in the Shanghai Grand Theatre, ______?
A.hasn’t she     B.has she
C.isn’t she     D.is she
答案:B
解析:句中陈述部分是现在完成时的否定句,故反意疑问句选B。
 (2)(2009?辽宁卷)It’s the first time that he has been to Australia, ______?
A.isn’t he     B.hasn’t he
C.isn’t it      D.hasn’t it
答案:C
解析:反意疑问句的构成需依据主句的主语和谓语而定。
 (3)(2009?河北唐山调研)The women carrying babies, come in first, ______?
A.will you      B.will they
C.don’t they     D.don’t you
答案:A
解析:该句陈述部分是祈使句,其中The women carrying babies为称呼语,故反意疑问句选A。
X8U5
1.It is a great pleasure to meet you students from England...
我很高兴遇见你们这些来自英国的学生……
pleasure 本来是抽象名词,在此句中具体化,意思是“乐事;快事”。
①It‘s a pleasure to meet you.
认识你是十分高兴的事。
②She has few pleasures left in life.
她生活中已没有什么乐趣了。
拓展:抽象名词的具体化是高考的常考点之一,现总结如下:(1)表示具有某种特性、状态、特点、情感、情绪的人或事,且表示变化了的词义时,这类抽象名词由于已具体化,
故可变为可数名词。如:
a pleasure 乐事      a success 成功的人或事
a surprise 奇异的事  a failure 失败的人或事
a pity 可惜的事  a must 必要的事
a worry 令人担忧的事  a wonder 奇迹
a great help 有帮助的人或事  a youth 年轻人
a danger 危险的人或物  a beauty 美人
 (2)表示抽象的特性、状态、思维、行为的一次、一种、一类、一下、一顿等意思时,常可组成“a/an+抽象名词”或“a/an+形容词+抽象名词”结构。如:
have a sleep 睡觉 die a death 死
take a great interest 表现极大的兴趣
 take a look 看 get a high opinion 得到很高的评价
make an apology 道歉
have a good time 玩得高兴
an art 一种艺术
a delicious breakfast (lunch, supper) 可口的早餐(午餐、晚餐)
[即境活用1] She is ______ success, ______ woman as she is.
A./; /       B.a; a
C./; a      D.a; /
答案:D
解析:考查冠词。第一空填a,表示“一位成功人士”;第二空 as引导让步状语从句时,句子需倒装且名词前不填冠词。
2.We have_been_excavating layers of ash almost six metres thick, which suggests that they might have kept the fire burning all winter.
我们一直在挖掘一层层的积灰,几乎有六米厚,这意味着他们可能整个冬天都在烧火。
 (1)句中的have been doing是现在完成进行时。
完成进行时是现在完成时的强调形式,表示动作从过去某一时间开始,一直延续到现在,可能还要继续下去,通常与表示一段时间的状语连用,如:for hours, since this morning等,其构成是“have/has+been+现在分词”。
I have been looking for my lost book for three days, but I still haven’t found it.
我已经花了三天的时间找我丢失的书,但还没有找到。
【注意】现在完成进行时与现在完成时的区别:
①二者都可以表示动作的延续,区别在于:前者更强调动作的延续性,可以说是后者的强调形式。
We have been living here for ten years.(强调还要继续住下去)
We have lived here for ten years.(不知道是否已经结束)
②在无时间状语的情况下,前者表示动作仍在进行,而后者则表示动作在过去已结束。
The students have been preparing for the exam.(还在进行)
The students have prepared for the exam.(已经结束)
 (2)句中的suggest含义为“暗示,表明”,后面接从句时不用虚拟语气。
His pale face suggests he is in bad health.
他面色苍白,说明他身体不好。
当suggest含义为“建议,提出”时,后面跟从句时要用虚拟语气that sb. should do。
I suggested to him that we should handle the problem another way.我向他建议我们用另一种方式处理这个问题。
The dentist suggested that she (should) come another day.牙医建议她改天再来。
 [即境活用2] (1)The two countries ______ to maintain their military equation for many years.
A.tried      B.was trying
C.have tried     D.have been trying
答案:D
 (2)The suggestion that the mayor ______ the prizes was accepted by everyone.
A.would present    B.present
C.presents     D.ought to present
答案:B
3.Abruptly she sat down, only_to_be_scooped_up by her laughing, shouting sister, Luna.
她突然坐下,结果被她又笑又嚷的妹妹鲁娜抱了起来。
only to be scooped up by her laughing, shouting sister, Luna是不定式做结果状语,多表示意料之外的结果。
He hurried to the station only to find that the train had left. 他匆匆忙忙地赶到车站,结果发现火车已经开走了。
提示:-ing 形式做结果状语多表示由于前边的动作自然而然地导致后边的结果。如:
①They can eat a person in two minutes, leaving only bones. 它们可以在两分钟之内把一个人吃光,只剩骨头。
②European football is played in more than 80 countries, making it the most popular sport.
有80多个国家踢欧式足球,这使得它成为最流行的运动。
 [即境活用3] The news reporters hurried to the airport, only ______ the film stars had left.
A.to tell     B.to be told
C.telling     D.told
答案:B
解析:only+to do 常做结果状语,故排除C、D两项。根据句意可知是“别人告诉记者”,the news reporters 做主语,需用被动式。
3. 现在完成进行时
[应用3] (1)—I'm sure Andrew will win the first prize in the final.
—I think so. He ______ for it for months.
A.is preparing     B.was preparing
C.had been prepared    D.has been preparing
答案:D
解析:从语境可知 prepare 这一动作从过去一直持续到说话时。故用 have been doing。
 (2)She ought to stop working. She has a headache because she ______ all day long.
A.has been reading    B.had read
C.is reading     D.read
答案:A
解析:主句用了一般现在时,从句强调到现在为止,一直在读书,所以用现在完成进行时。
 (3)Cathy is taking notes of the grammatical rules in class at Sunshine School, where she ______ English for a year.
A.studies     B.studied
C.is studying    D.has been studying
答案:D
解析:凯茜正在阳光学校记语法笔记,她一直在那里学英语,到现在一年了。
 (4)Ever since the Greens moved to the country a year ago, they ______ better health.
A.are enjoying     B.have been enjoying
C.could have enjoyed    D.had enjoyed
答案:B
解析:ever since (自从……以来)引导从句时,主句要用完成时态。本句强调“一直进行”,所以选B。
 (5)—Did you find the missing couple in the mountain yesterday?
—No, but we ______ to get in touch with them ever since.
A.have tried    B.have been trying
C.had tried    D.had been trying
答案:B
解析:从情景可知,句子的谓语应使用现在完成时态,排除C、D两项。现在完成时表示动作到现在结束;现在完成进行时则表示动作持续到现在并且要延续到将来。运用到本题表示“过去一直并且以后也要尽力去取得联系”。

 (本文选自岸江的新浪博客)

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