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新课标必修1--选修8课文二轮复习主要句型整理(一)  

2012-03-03 16:44:46|  分类: 英语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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新课标必修1--选修8课文二轮复习主要句型整理


B1U1
Ⅱ.重点句型详解
1.....it was the first time in a year and a half that I'd seen the night face to face...
……这是我一年半以来第一次观察夜晚……
It is/was the first time(that)...这是一个固定句式,it可换成this或that; first可换成second, third等,以表达不同的意义。
①This is the fourth time she's rung you in a week.
这是她一周内第四次给你打电话。
②It was the second time that he had been out with her alone.这是他第二次单独跟她外出。
③It will be the second time that I have got the prize.
那将是我第二次获得该奖。
提示:(1)It is the first time that...后接现在完成时;It was the first time that...后接过去完成时;It will be the first time that...后接现在完成时。
(2)the first time可起从属连词作用,引导时间状语从句。
The first time I saw her, my heart stopped.
我第一次见到她时,心脏都停止了跳动。
(3)for the first time意为“第一次”,单独用做状语。
He was cheated for the first time.
他第一次被骗了。
 [即境活用3] —Have you ever been here before?
—No. This is the first time that I ______ to the Great Wall.
A.comes    B.have been         C.came    D.had come
解析:This is the first time that...之后的从句需要用现在完成时态。
答案:B

2....tell him/her that he/she should have studied...
……告诉他/她本该学习……
should have done结构表示过去应该做某事而事实上没有做;而shouldn't have done则表示过去本不该做某事而实际上却做了,两者皆含有“责备”的口吻。
①You should have finished your homework yesterday.
你昨天就该做完作业。
②You shouldn't have told him about it.
你本来不应该告诉他这件事情。
拓展:其他“情态动词+have+done”结构:
(1)must have done对过去发生的事情的肯定推测。“一定……”。
(2)can't/couldn't have done对过去发生的事情的否定推测。“不可能……”。
(3)needn't have done过去没有必要做却做了。“本来没必要做……”。
(4)ought (not) to have done=should (not) have done
(5)might/may have done过去可能做了某事(可能性小)。“可能做了……”。
(6)could have done过去本可能做而未做。“本来能做……”。
(7)would have done愿意做某事却不能做。“本来想要做……”。
 [即境活用2] Oh, I'm not feeling well in the stomach. I ___so much fried chicken just now.
A.shouldn't eat    B.mustn't have eaten
C.shouldn't have eaten   D.mustn't eat
解析:由just now可知,本题谈论过去之事。谈论过去之事,在should或must之后接不定式的完成式。must表示推测只用于肯定句中,shouldn’t have done表说话之前不应该做某事,但事实上却做了,含有责备的口气。
答案:C
3. While walking the dog, you were careless and it got loose and was hit by a car.你在遛狗的时候不小心让狗松脱了,接着它被一辆小车撞着了。
While walking the dog=While you were walking the dog,这是状语从句的省略。
在when, while, if, as if, though, as, where, unless等连词(词组)引导的状语从句中,如果谓语动词有be,而主语又跟主句的主语相同或为it时,则从句的主语和be常常省略。
①When (I was) in Japan, I took many beautiful pictures.
在日本时,我拍了许多漂亮的照片。
②While (I was) waiting, I read newspapers.
我边等待,边看报纸。
③If (it were) not for you, we would not go there.
要不是为你,我们就不会去那儿了。
④He looks as if (he were) drunk.他看上去像喝醉了。
⑤She went on working though (she was) exhausted.
尽管她精疲力竭,但仍继续工作。
⑥Fill in the blanks with the given words; change the form where (it is) necessary.用所给词填空,必要的地方改变形式。
⑦I won't go unless (I'm) invited.
除非被邀请,否则我不会去。
 [即境活用1] When first ______ to the market, these products enjoyed great success.
A.introducing  B.introduced       C.introduce    D.being introduced
解析:将从句补全应为When these products were first introduced to the market,主从句主语一致且从句中有be,可以省略主语和be。
答案:B
4.Mother asked her if/whether she was very hot with so many clothes on.妈妈问她穿这么多衣服是不是很热。
“with+n.+形容词/副词/介词短语/分词/动词不定式”这种结构在句中经常做状语,表示原因、方式或伴随状态。如果分词的动作与前面的名词是主动关系,用现在分词;如果是被动关系,则用过去分词;如果表示一个未来的动作就用不定式。
①He lay on his back, with his eyes looking up into the sky. 他躺着,眼瞅着天空。
②With his homework done, he went out to play.
完成作业,他就出去玩了。
③With the guide to lead us, we'll have no difficulty finding his house.
有导游带路,我们将不费力地找到他家。
④He came in, with a book in his hand.
他手里拿着一本书走了进来。
⑤He is used to sleeping with the windows open.
他已经习惯了开着窗户睡觉。
⑥He often sleeps with the light on.
他经常开着灯睡觉。
 [即境活用4] ______ five minutes ______ before the last bus left, we arrived at the station.
A.There were; go   B.With; to go         C.It was; left    D.It had; left
解析:本题考查with的复合结构,即“with+宾语+宾语补足语”。本题用不定式做宾补表示将来的动作。句意:在最后一班公交车离开的前五分钟,我们到了车站。
答案:B
B1U2
Ⅱ.重点句型详解
1.Native English speakers can understand each other even if they don't speak the same kind of English. 以英语作为母语的人,即使他们所说的英语不尽相同,也可以相互交流。
句中 even if 相当于 even though, 意为“即使;尽管”,引导让步状语从句。even if/though 引导的从句中可用现在时代替将来时。
①Even if you don't like flowers, you shouldn't miss the flower exhibition.即使你不喜欢花,这次花展你也不应错过。
②We have decided to visit the museum even if it rains tomorrow.我们决定明天去参观博物馆,即使下雨。
拓展:(1)引导让步状语从句的引导词还有 although, though, no matter when/what..., whenever, wherever, however 等等。
(2)as也可以引导让步状语从句,但要把其表语、谓语或宾语前置,且前置的单数名词不可以加冠词。
①Even though you achieve great success in your work, you should not be conceited.
即使你们在工作中取得了巨大的成绩,也不应该自满。
②Whatever you do, do it well.
不管你做什么,把它做好。
③However hot it is, he won't take off his hat.
不管多热,他都不摘下帽子。
④Girl as she is, she can go alone in the darkness.
尽管她是个女孩,她敢一个人走夜路。
 [即境活用1] Many of them turned a deaf ear to his advice, ______they knew it to be valuable.
A.as if   B.now that       C.even though      D.so that
解析:even though=even if “即使”,引导让步状语从句。
答案:C
2.Believe it or not, there is no such thing as standard English. 信不信由你,(世界上)没有什么标准英语。
(1)believe it or not 信不信由你。常在句中做插入语。
(2)no such thing 没有这样的事情。such与 all, no, some, any, few, little, many, much, several, one 等词连用时,应位于它们的后面。
①Believe it or not, he refused to accept our offer.
信不信由你,他拒绝接受我们的帮助。
②There is no such street in the city.
这城市没有那样的街道。
③He said he didn't have time or made some such excuse.
他说他没有时间或别的诸如此类的借口。
 [即境活用2] I’m amazed to hear from my school teacher again. ______, it is ten years since we met last.
A.In a word   B.What’s more    C.That’s to say  D.Believe it or not
解析:句意:想不到又一次收到学校老师的来信,信不信由你,我们上次见面还是在十年前。in a word总之;what’s more而且;that’s to say也就是说;believe it or not信不信由你。
答案:D
3. with的复合结构
[应用3] (1)—Come on, please give me some ideas about the project.
—Sorry. With so much work ______ my mind, I almost break down.
A.filled    B.filling
C.to fill    D.being filled
解析:with复合结构中,work和fill是主动关系,且表示正在进行,因此其后要用doing结构。
答案:B
 (2)John received an invitation to dinner, and with his work ______, he gladly accepted it.
A.finished     B.finishing
C.having finished    D.was finished
解析:根据work和finish是被动关系,可以判断出答案。
答案:A
 (3)______ two exams to worry about, I have to work really hard this weekend.
A.With    B.Besides
C.As for    D.Because of
解析:根据句意,此处应采用“with+宾语+不定式”。
答案:A
 (4)It was cold outside, the boy ran into the room ______ his nose red.
A.to    B.on
C.in    D.with
解析:这个句子考查with的复合结构的用法,用“with+名词+形容词”做状语表示伴随情况。而to、on、in作为介词则没有这种用法,故排除A、B、C,答案为D。句意是:外面天气很冷,那个男孩跑进了屋子时,鼻子红红的。
答案:D
B1U3
●重点句型
1.Ever since middle school, my sister Wang Wei and I have dreamed about taking a great bike trip.从高中起,我姐姐王薇和我就一直梦想作一次伟大的自行车旅行。
2.It was my sister who first had the idea to cycle along the entire Mekong River from where it begins to where it ends. 首先想到要沿湄公河从源头到终点骑车旅行的是我的姐姐。
3.When I told her the air would be hard to breathe and it would be very cold, she said it would be an interesting experience.当我告诉她那里空气稀薄,呼吸困难而且天气很冷时,她却说这将是一次有趣的经历。
4.Once she has made up her mind, nothing can change it.她一旦下定决心,什么也不能使她改变。
5.A determined person always tries to finish the job, no matter how hard it is.
有决心的人总是努力完成工作的,而不管它有多难。
1.Ever since middle school, my sister Wang Wei and I have dreamed about taking a great bike trip. 从高中起,我姐姐王薇和我就一直梦想作一次伟大的自行车旅行。
ever since “从那以后”,句子要与现在完成时或现在完成进行时连用,类似的时间状语还有 so far, up till now, by now, recently, lately, since last month, in/for the past+一段时间,since...ago等。
①He came to England three years ago and has lived here ever since.
他三年前来到英国,从那以后便一直住在这里。
②I haven't seen her since ten years ago.
自十年前至今,我没见过她。
③We have completed half of the work so far.
到目前为止,我们完成了一半的工作。
④He hasn't written to me recently.
他最近没给我写信。
⑤The couple have been working very hard for/in the past (last) ten years.在最近的十年里这对夫妇一直努力工作。
拓展:It is/was/has been+时间段+since...自从……已经多久了。
It will be/was+时间段+before...再有多长时间才……
在 “It is/was+时间段+since...”句型中,若 since从句中的动词为延续性动词,句子意思要发生变化。
It is three years since he joined the army. 他参军3年了。
It is three years since he smoked.他戒烟3年了(不吸烟)。
 [即境活用1] How long do you suppose it is ______ he arrived there?
A.when  B.before      C.after   D.since
解析:考查 “It is+一段时间+since...”,表示“自从……到现在多长时间”。
答案:D
2.When I told her the air would be hard to  breathe and it would be very cold, she said it would be an interesting experience.当我告诉她那里空气稀薄,呼吸困难而且天气很冷时,她却说这将是一次有趣的经历。
be+adj.+to do在“主语+系动词+形容词+不定式”结构中,不定式与主语在意义上是动宾关系,但要用主动形式表被动意义;如果不定式的动词是不及物的,要在不定式后边加介词。用于这种句式中的形容词常为:easy, difficult, heavy, hard, nice, bitter, dangerous, interesting, important, comfortable, pleasant, impossible 等。
①The question is easy to answer.这问题容易回答。
②That book is difficult to understand.那本书难懂。
③The water in that river is not fit to drink.
那条河中的水不宜饮用。
④Harry Potter is pleasant to read.
《哈利?波特》读起来让人感到愉快。
⑤He is easy to get along with.他很容易相处。
拓展:此句式还可以拓展为 “find/feel/think/believe+宾语+adj.+to do”。例如:
I find English tongue twisters pleasant to learn.
我觉得英语绕口令学起来很有意思。
 [即境活用2] (1) I like getting up very early in summer. The morning air is so good ______.
A.to be breathed   B.to breathe      C.breathing   D.being breathed
解析:考查 be+adj.+to do结构。
答案:B
 (2)They found the lecture hard ______; they all felt sleepy.
A.to be understood   B.for understanding
C.to understand    D.to have been understood
解析:考查 “find+宾语+adj.+to do”结构。
答案:C
3.Once she has made up her mind, nothing can change it.
她一旦下了决心,什么也不能使她改变。
“once+状语从句”意为“一旦……就……”。
在 once引导的状语从句中常用一般现在时代替将来时。
①Once you remember it, you'll never forget it.
一旦你记住它,你就永远不会忘记它。
②Once you have promised, you must do it.
一旦你许下诺言,你就必须履行。
拓展:once 用做副词,可表示:
(1)(for) one time 一次
I have only been here once. 我只来过这儿一次。
(2)at some time in the past 一度,曾经
He once lived in Zambia. 他曾经(一度)住在赞比亚。
(3)all at once=suddenly 突然
All at once the door opened. 突然门开了。
 [即境活用3]  You will be successful in the interview ______ you have confidence.
A.before   B.once     C.until   D.though
解析:考查 once引导带有时间意味的条件状语从句,意为“一旦……就……”。
答案:B
4.A determined person always tries to finish the job, no matter how hard it is.
一个意志坚定的人总是努力完成工作,不管它多么困难。
no matter ,作“不管”“无论”解,同 what/who/when/where/how 等疑问词连用,引导让步状语从句。
①No matter what he says, I won't believe him.
不管他说什么,我都不会相信他。
②No matter when you come, you are welcome.
无论你什么时候来都受欢迎。
③No matter whose bag this is, it must be kept here for the present. 不管这是谁的包,暂时必须放在这里。
④No matter who knocks, don't open the door.
不管谁敲门,都不要开门。
提示(1)no matter what/who/when/可以换成 whatever/whoever/whenever/however/wherever 引导让步状语从句。
(2)whatever, whichever,whoever, whomever 还可以引导名词性从句。 Whoever breaks the law should be punished. 任何违犯了法律的人都应受到惩罚。
 (3)however 是副词,修饰形容词、副词+主+谓; whatever 是代词,修饰的是名词。如:
①However difficult it is, you must work it out.
不管有多难,你都要解决这件事。
②Whatever difficulty there is, we must work together.
不管有什么样的困难我们都要团结合作。
 [即境活用4](1) ______ well prepared you are, you still need a lot of luck in mountain climbing.
A.However    B.Whatever          C.No matter    D.Although
解析:考查 “however+adj.+主+系动词”引导让步状语从句。
答案:A
 (2) The lawyer seldom wears anything other than a suit ______ the season.
A.whatever    B.wherever        C.whenever    D.however
解析:whatever 引导让步状语从句,意为“不管什么”。该句后半部分的完整形式应该是 whatever the season is。
答案:A
B1U4
●重点句型
1.In the farmyards, the chickens and even the pigs were too nervous to eat. 在农家院子里,鸡和猪都烦躁不安,以致不吃食。
2.It seemed as if the world was at an end! 世界似乎到了末日!
3.All hope was not lost. 不是所有的希望都破灭了。
1.It seemed as if the world was at an end!
世界似乎到了末日!
It seems (to sb.) that... (对某人来说)似乎……
=Sb. seems to do/to be doing/to have done...
It seems as if/though... “似乎(好像)……”,可接虚拟语气。
seem+(to be)+n./adj. 似乎是……
There seems to be... 好像有……
It seems so. (=So it seems.) 似乎是那样。
①It seemed that he had known the truth.=He seemed to have known the truth. 他好像知道了真相。
②His father seems (to be) strict.
他父亲似乎很严厉。
③There seemed to be a voice in the distance.
似乎远处有人说话。
④It always seemed as though everything in my childhood had just happened.我童年的一切仿佛刚刚发生一样。
辨析:seem/look/appear
(1)seem 暗含有一定的根据,往往是接近实际的判断,后可接介词、形容词、不定式或从句。
(2)look 着重由视觉而得出的印象,可与 like连用,但不能与不定式连用。可接 as if从句,不接 that从句。
(3)appear 强调外表给人的印象,而且事实往往并非如此。可接 that从句,不接 as if从句。
 [即境活用1]—What a noise! I can hardly stand it.
—It ______ as if they are having a party next door.
A.looks   B.seems      C.appears  D.happens
解析:C、D项不接 as if从句。A项不合题意。考查 It seems as if...句式。
答案:B
2.In the farmyards, the chickens and even the pigs were too nervous to eat. 在农家院子里,鸡和猪都烦躁不安,以致不吃食。
too...to... 句型表示“太……以至于不能……(表否定)”,可转化为 not...enough to...和 so...that...。
The child is too young to dress himself.
The child is not old enough to dress himself.
The child is so young that he can't dress himself.
这孩子太小,不能够自己穿衣。
提示:(1)当 too后接 easy, ready, happy, willing, eager 或 anxious时,to 后的动词表示肯定。例如:
The book is too easy to understand.
这本书太容易理解了。
He was too anxious to leave.
他急于离开。
(2)too...not to... 句式表示肯定意思。例如:
He is too careful not to have noticed it.
他那么细心,不会不注意到这一点的。
 (3)too...to...中 too前面用了否定词(如 never)时,表示肯定。例如:
It is never too late to mend.
改过不嫌晚。
(4)only too...to...表示肯定,其中 too后的形容词多数是表示某种心情的,如 glad, pleased, willing, thankful, delighted, determined 等,也有描绘性的形容词,如 good, kind, true等。例如:
The girl is only too kind to help us.
这姑娘非常乐于帮助我们。
 [即境活用2] Jim is a kind boy. He is ______willing to help his classmates.
A.so    B.such
C.much    D.too
解析:too+glad/pleased/willing...to...表示肯定意义。如用A项应改为 so...as to才对。
答案:D
3.All hope was not lost.不是所有的希望都破灭了。
此句为部分否定。all, both, each, every, everybody, everything, complete, completely, always, all the time, whole, wholly, entirely, altogether 等代词、形容词和副词与否定词 not连用,构成部分否定,表示“不都、并非都”的意思。
①All that glitters is not gold.
发光的并不一定都是金子。
②Both of the brothers don't like the film.
兄弟俩不都喜欢这部电影。
③Not everything went well with him.
他并非每件事情都顺利。
④Not all of the rich are happy.
不是所有有钱人都幸福。
⑤The rich are not always happy.
有钱人并非总是幸福。
⑥You can't fool all the people all the time.
你未必总是能愚弄所有的人。
拓展:全部否定用:no one, none, neither, nobody, nothing,以及 not...any/either来表示。
①None of them are right. 他们都不对。
②Neither of us will go. 我们俩都不去。
③Nobody can win me. 没人能赢我。
 [即境活用3] (1)—The exam wasn't difficult at all, was it?
—No, but I don't believe ______could pass it.
A.somebody    B.anybody
C.everybody    D.nobody
解析:not与 everybody 连用表示部分否定。
答案:C
 (2)—Which of the two computer games did you prefer?
—Actually I didn't like ______.
A.both of them    B.either of them
C.none of them    D.neither of them
解析:not... either=neither 表示全部否定。
答案:B
B1U5
●重点句型
1.The last thirty years have seen the greatest number of laws stopping our rights and progress, until today we have reached a stage where we have almost no rights at all.过去30年来所出现的大量法律剥夺了我们的权利,阻挡了我们的进步,一直到今天,我们还处在几乎什么权利都没有的阶段。
2....only then did we decide to answer violence with violence. ……直到那时我们才决定以暴还暴。
3.I felt bad the first time I talked to a group. 第一次给旅行团作讲解时,我的心情很不好。
1....only then did we decide to answer violence with violence.……只有到那时我们才决定用暴力反抗暴力。
only 修饰的时间、条件和方式状语,为了强调而提到句首时,句子要用部分倒装形式,把原句中的情态动词、系动词或助动词提到主语前面。only 如修饰从句而提到句首,主句要部分倒装。
①Only at that time did he realize that he had made a mistake.
直到那时他才意识到自己犯的错误。
②Only by practising a few hours every day will you be able to master English.
只有通过每天练习几个小时你才能掌握英语。
③Only with all your time and energy can you do the job well.
只有用上你全部的时间和精力你才能把这项工作做好。
④Only when I came back was I informed of the news.
直到我回来,我才被通知这个消息。
⑤Only if I get a job will I have enough money to go to college.我只有找到了工作才有足够的钱上大学。
提示:(1)在部分倒装句中,如果谓语部分无助动词,则须找助动词来“帮助”它构成倒装句。如:
×Only after the war learned he the sad news.
√Only after the war did he learn the sad news.
(2)only 修饰状语从句时,从句不可倒装。如:
×Only when did he return did we find out the truth.
√Only when he returned did we find out the truth.
(3)only修饰主语时,句子不可倒装。如:
×Only can he answer the question.
√Only he can answer the question.
 [即境活用1] ______ you eat the correct food ______ be able to keep fit and stay healthy.
A.Only if; will you    B.Only if; you will
C.Unless; will you        D.Unless; you will
解析:“only+if从句”放于句首,主句用部分倒装。
答案:A
2.I felt bad the first time I talked to a group. 第一次给旅行团作讲解时,我的感觉很不好。
the first time 相当于连词,引导一个状语从句,意为“第一次”。这类特殊短语还有:
(1)each time, every time, next time, last time, any time 等也可以做连词用,表示“无论何时”“每当”“每次”等,引导一个时间状语从句。
Every time we come to Beijing, we go to visit the Forbidden City. 每次我们去北京,我们都去参观故宫。
I didn' t have any penny last time I saw you.
上次我看见你时,我身无分文。
 (2)immediately, directly, instantly 可活用为连词,引导时间状语从句,表示“一……就……”,相当于 as soon as。
The young man rushed out of the hall immediately he heard the sound.那个年轻人一听到声响就冲出了大厅。
(3)the moment, the minute, the second, the instant 等名词短语也可用做连词,也相当于 as soon as,表示“一……就……”。
The moment Professor Wang appeared on the platform, the audience all stood up and clapped warmly.
王教授一出现在讲台上,听众就站起来热烈鼓掌。
 (4)the morning/afternoon/evening, the night, the day, the week, the year, the spring/summer/autumn/winter 等一些表示时间段的名词短语也可以引导时间状语从句。
The morning Mr Smith was walking along the lake, he met an old friend.
那天早晨史密斯先生在湖边散步时遇到了一位老朋友。
 [即境活用2] ______I toured Zhangjiajie, I was deeply impressed with its beautiful scenery.
A.For the first time    B.At first
C.It was the first time    D.The first time
解析:the first time 用做连词,引导时间状语从句。
答案:D
2. 名词短语或副词做连词,引导时间状语从句
[应用2] (1)Betty shows great interest in this poem now, but she thought it boring ______ she read it.
A.at the first time   B.the first time     C.for the first time   D.at first
答案:B
解析:the first time“第一次时”,引导时间状语从句。
 (2)My sister came ______ she got my short message.
A.exactly    B.especially      C.directly   D.simply
答案:C
解析:directly=as soon as“一……就……”,引导时间状语从句。
 (3)He left Europe ______ World War Ⅱ broke out.
A.the year    B.in the year
C.during the year   D.for the year
答案:A
解析:the year“在……这一年”,引导时间状语从句

B2U1
●重点句型
1.Frederick William I, the King of Prussia, could never have imagined that his greatest gift to the Russian people would have such an amazing history.
普鲁士国王腓特烈?威廉一世永远想象不到,他赠给俄罗斯人民的最厚重的礼物会有这样一段令人惊讶的历史。
2.There is no doubt that the boxes were then put on a train... 毫无疑问,这些箱子后来被装上火车……
3.After that, what happened to the Amber Room remains a mystery. 从那以后,琥珀屋的最终所归便成了一个谜。
1.Frederick William I, the King of Prussia, could never have imagined that his greatest gift to the Russian people would have such an amazing history. 普鲁士国王腓特烈?威廉一世永远想象不到他赠给俄罗斯人民的最厚重的礼物会有这样一段令人惊讶的历史。
本句中 could never have imagined为情态动词表推测的用法,can和 could可以用在否定句和疑问句中,后接完成式,表示对已发生的事情的惊讶、怀疑、猜测或不相信等;或接进行时,表示对正发生的事情的惊讶、怀疑、猜测或不相信等;或接原形,表示对现在或一般情况的否定推测。
①Could/Can he have been told the news?
他被告知这个消息了吗?
②He knew little about Japanese, so he couldn't have learned it. 他对日语一无所知,因此他不可能学过。
③The light is out. They can't be at home.
灯灭着,他们现在不可能在家。
拓展:(1)can/could主要用于否定推测;must 表推测只用于肯定句;mustn't表示“禁止;不允许”。情态动词 can和 must表推测时,其反意疑问句的动词形式要依据主句中有无具体时间状语而定。
(2)could have done用于肯定句,则表示“本来能够做到却没有做到”,此时 could不能换成 can。
①It seems that he is unhappy. He must have been told the bad news.
看起来他不高兴,他一定已被告知这个坏消息了。
②He could have caught the early bus, but his bike broke down on the way.
他本能够赶上那辆早班车,但是他的自行车在路上坏了。
 [即境活用1](1)I ______have been more than six years old when the accident happened.
A.shouldn‘t        B.couldn't
C.mustn't      D.needn't
解析:本题考查情态动词的用法。must表推测只能用于肯定句,否定句用 can't/couldn't 代替。shouldn't have done表示“本来不该而实际上却做了”,needn't have done表示“本来不必而实际上却做了”,均不合题意。本句译为:当事故发生时我不可能超过6岁。
答案:B
 (2)He paid for a seat, when he ______ have entered free.
A.could    B.would
C.must    D.need
解析:本题考查情态动词 could have done 表示本来能办到的事,而没有做成。本句译为:他本可以免费进入,却买了票。
答案:A
2.After that, what happened to the Amber Room remains a mystery. 从那以后,琥珀屋的最终所归便成了一个谜。
remain a mystery为系表结构,在该结构中,remain为系动词,意为“(继续)保持,仍然处于(某种状态)”,后接名词、形容词、分词、介词短语等做表语。
①Where he has gone remains a mystery.
他去哪里了仍然是个谜。
②Shops remain open till late in the evening.
商店营业到晚上很晚。
③Much work remains undone. 还有大量的工作未做。
④They remained listening. 他们一直在听。
⑤The patient remained in danger. 病人仍处在危险中。
⑥That remains to be seen. 那还有待观察。
⑦Since it's been a secret so long, it had better remain so.
既然它已是长时间的秘密,还是继续保密为好。
拓展:(1)remain还可用做不及物动词,意为“剩下,还有;(继续)待在某处,继续存在,留下”。
①Little of the original architecture remains.
原来的建筑现在留存的已经很少了。
②I'll remain to see the end of the game.
我将留下看比赛的结果。
(2)辨析 remain/stay/keep
①remain继续保持或处于原来的状态。
②stay继续保持或处于原来的状态,与 remain同义,但后面不接 to do或 to be done,多接形容词等构成系表结构。
③keep需要设法才能保持或处于某种状态。
 [即境活用2] Please remain ______; the winner of the prize will be announced soon.
A.seating    B.seated          C.to seat    D.to be seated
解析:考查 remain后接分词做表语,seat vt.“使就坐”,用过去分词 seated做表语。
答案:B
B2U2
1.I lived in what you call “Ancient Greece” and I used to write about the Olympic Games a long time ago.
我生活在你们所说的“古希腊”。我曾经写过很久以前奥林匹克运动会的情况。
(1)what you call“Ancient Greece”是由 what引导的宾语从句,做介词 in的宾语,同时 what在宾语从句中做 call的间接宾语。what可以引导主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句及同位语从句等名词性从句,它的含义也比较广泛,可以指事、物、时间、地点、言语、情况等。
①The boss seems not satisfied with what we have done.
老板似乎对我们所做的事不满意。
②We waited what seemed two hours.
我们等了大约两个小时。
③Who invented what is called “wheel”?
谁发明了叫做“轮子”的东西?
 (2)used to意为“过去常常”,后接动词原形,其否定和疑问形式,可以使用 used,也可以借助助动词 did。
Your father used to drink a lot, didn't he/usedn't he?
你父亲曾喝酒很厉害,对不对?
He didn't use/usedn't to drive to work.
他过去不曾开车上班。
拓展:
①used to do 表示过去经常做某事,也可以表示过去的状态。
be used to doing 意为“习惯于”,be 也可换成 get或 become。
be used to do 意为“被用于做……”,是被动语态。
It used to be a very quiet town.
它过去曾是个非常安静的城镇。
The man got used to living in the countryside.
那个男人已习惯于住在农村。
Wood can be used to make paper.木头可用于造纸。
②used to 表示过去持续的状态或情况,客观地陈述过去的规则行为,现在已不存在此动作,不与表一段时间的状语连用;would表过去不大规则的行为动作,现在可能仍存在,常与 often, sometimes, frequently, for hours 等连用,但不与表示状态的动词连用。如:
There used to be an old temple on the hill.
从前山上有座古庙。
She would sit there for hours doing nothing at all.
她总是一连几个小时坐在那儿,什么也不做。
 [即境活用1](1)(2008?天津模拟)He finds his daughter is quite different from ______ she was five years ago.
A.who         B.what
C.how        D.which
解析:句意:他发现他女儿跟5年前大不一样了。what 引导宾语从句,并在从句中做表语。
答案:B
 (2)(2009?惠州质检)When he was there, he ______ go to that coffee shop at the corner after work every day.
A.would    B.should
C.used to    D.might
解析:强调过去一段时间一直持续的动作用 would。
答案:A
2.-How often do you hold your Games?
-Every four years.
——每隔多久举办一次奥运会?
——每四年。
every four years 每四年;每隔三年
every与基数词、序数词、other或 few连用,表示时间或空间的间隔,意为“每……;每隔……”,其具体结构为:
every+基数词+复数名词
every+序数词+单数名词
every other+单数名词 意为“每隔……”
every few+复数名词 意为“每隔……”。
①every four days 每隔三天
②every third day 每隔两天
③every other day 每隔一天
④every few days 每隔几天(注意 few前没有a)
 [即境活用2]The teacher asked his students to leave a space in their exercise books______.
A. every a few lines    B. each a few lines
C. every few lines     D. each few lines
解析:“每/每隔……”短语中只能用 every, 而不用 each;“every few+名词复数”表示“每隔几……”,few前不能加 a。
答案:C
3.No other countries could join in, nor_could slaves or women!别的国家不能参加,奴隶和妇女也不能参加。
nor/neither“也不”,置于句首引导分句,句子要用部分倒装。即:
“neither/nor+be(助动词或情态动词)+主语”,表示前面否定的情况也适合于下文另一人或物,相当于 either 用于否定句。当两个主语是同一个人或物时,只能用 nor。
①She isn't a student; neither/nor is he (=he isn't a student, either). 她不是学生,他也不是。
②I don't know, nor do I care. (nor不能用 neither替换)
我不知道,也不关心。
拓展:(1)“so+be(助动词或情态动词)+主语”,表示上文肯定的情况也适合于下文另外一个人或物。
(2)“so+主语+be(助动词或情态动词)”则表示对前述情况的认同或强调,注意前后是同一主语,意为“的确”“确实”。
 (3)So it is (was) with sb. (sth.)或 It is (was) the same with sb. (sth.)用于前面陈述的是两种以上的情况或既有肯定也有否定。
①—He dances well. 他舞跳得好。
—So do you. 你也跳得好。
②It's a fine day today. 今天是一个好天。
—So it is! 今天确实是一个好天!
③—He didn't work hard, so he failed the exam.
他不努力学习,所以考试失败了。
—So it was with me.我也是。
 [即境活用3](1)(2009?南京质检)If you don't sign up for the game, ______.
A.I don't go, either    B.neither will I
C.so will I      D.nor do I
解析:if从句中用现在时代替将来时,但主句中需用将来时态,A、D时态不对。
答案:B
 (2)You say he works hard. ______ , and ______.
A.So he does; so you do  B.So he does; so do you
C.So does he; so do you  D.So does he; so you do
解析:第一空表示对前述情况的认同“他确实很努力”,用 so he does;第二空表示这一情况也适合于你,“你也很努力”用 so do you。
答案:B
4.There's just as much competition among countries to host the Olympics as to win Olympic medals. 国与国之间争取奥运会承办权的竞争,就跟争夺奥运奖牌一样激烈。
as...as“像……一样”,引导比较状语从句。
as...as同级比较的形式有:
as+adj./adv.+as
as+adj.+可数名词复数形式或不可数名词+as
as+adj.+a/an+可数名词单数形式+as
注意:(1)同级比较的否定形式为 not so/as...as...。
(2)同级比较可修饰倍数、百分数、分数等。
(3)此结构中第二个 as可为连词也可为介词,做连词可引导一个比较状语从句,从句常用省略形式;做介词时,后接名词,也可接数量词表示某性质达到了什么程度。
①Asia is about four times as large as Europe.
亚洲大约是欧洲的四倍大。
②He owed as many thanks to his parents as (he owed) to his teachers. 他同样地感谢他的父母和老师。
③We walked as far as the lake last night.
昨晚我们散步远到湖边。
④He is not so friendly to me as I am to him.
他对我不像我对他那样友好。
⑤You must give flowers as much water as they need.
你必须给花浇足够多的水。
 [即境活用4](1)—What do you think of French?
—In my opinion, French is ______ English.
A.a subject so difficult as  B.as difficult a subject as
C.as a subject difficult as  D.difficult as subject as
解析:考查 as...as表示同级比较。其中第一个 as是副词,后接 adj.+a+n.。
答案:B
 (2)The farmers wondered if vegetables could bring in ______crops.
A.as many as    B.as good as
C.as much as    D.as well as
解析:此句意为“农民们想知道是否蔬菜能像庄稼一样带来同样多的 money (利润)”,故为 as much as。
答案:C
1.And my memory became so large that  even I couldn't believe it! 我的存储量变得如此巨大,甚至连我自己都不能相信!
so...that... 如此……以致……。 that 引导结果状语从句。另外, such...that...也引导结果状语从句。其结构形式为:
so+adj./adv.
+adj.+a/an+可数名词单数
+many/few+可数名词复数
much/little+不可数名词that 从句
such+a/an+adj.+可数名词单数
+adj.+可数名词复数
+adj.+不可数名词that 从句
①She was so excited that she couldn't go to sleep.
她兴奋得睡不着觉。
②It was so hot a day that nobody wanted to do anything.
(=It was such a hot day that nobody wanted to do anything.)天气如此热,谁也不想干活。
③I made so many mistakes in the composition that the teacher criticized me.
我的作文中出了许多错误,老师批评了我。
拓展:(1)当 so.../such...位于句首时,句子要部分倒装。
So small was the mark that I could hardly see it.
那个标记非常小,我几乎看不见它。
(2)so...that...中的主句和从句的主语是同一个,that 从句也可改为 as to do 形式。
The old lady was so kind that she led me to the hospital.
=The old lady was so kind as to lead me to the hospital.
这个老太太是那样好心,她把我领到了医院。
 (3)so that 连在一起用,可引导结果状语从句,也可引导目的状语从句。so that引导目的状语从句时,从句中常使用 can/could/may/might/will/would/should 等情态动词;引导结果状语从句时,从句中一般不用 can和 may等
词,在 so that前可以有逗号,意思是“因此;所以”。
He hurried up so that he could catch the train.
他匆匆赶路为的是赶上火车。(对比:He hurried up so that he caught the train. 他匆匆赶路,结果赶上了火车。)
[即境活用1](1)______about wild plants that they decided to make a trip to Madagascar for further research.
A.So curious the couple was
B.So curious were the couple
C.How curious the couple were
D.The couple was such curious
解析:考查 so...that...引导结果状语从句,且 so...放于句首时,句子部分倒装。
答案:B
 (2)Most children need encouragement in time of failure ______ they can cheer up again.
A.so that       B.in case
C.because    D.if
解析:考查 so that 引导目的状语从句。
答案:A
2.Anyhow, my goal is to provide humans with a life of high quality.
无论如何,我的目标是为人类提供高质量的生活。
of high quality在句中做定语,属于of+n.结构。这一结构相当于形容词,在句中可以做表语、定语或宾语补足语。
(1)of+n.结构中的名词是抽象名词时,相当于其名词所对应的形容词的意思,说明被修饰词具有某种特征或属性。常用的名词有:use, importance, help, value, interest, benefit 等。这些名词前可用 great, no, little, some, any, not much 等修饰,以表示不同程度。
The camel is of great help to the Arab.(=The camel is very helpful to the Arab.)
骆驼对阿拉伯人有很大帮助。
 (2)of+n.结构中的名词表种类、数量、度量等时,表示不同的人或物的共同特征,此时名词前通常有冠词。常用的名词有:size, type, kind, price, height, depth, length, weight, age, shape, colour 等。
The two are of an age, but are of different height.
这两个人年龄相同,但身高不同。
(3)of+n.结构还可以表示主语的根源关系,此时的名词多是表示亲属、血统、种族、国籍以及出处的名词,常用的名词有:family, blood, race, origin 等。
We are of the same blood. 我们是同一血统。
 (4)of+n.结构还可以表示人的特点、特性,常用 of+wealth/education/courage/achievement/ability 等。
Your sister is a girl of wisdom.
你妹妹是一位有智慧的女孩。
 [即境活用2] You will find this map of great ______ in helping you to get around London.
A.price    B.cost
C.value    D.usefulness
解析:be of great value=be very valuable “很有价值”。
答案:C
B5U4
They lived on the earth tens of millions of years ago, long before humans came into being...
千百万年前它们(恐龙)就在地球上生活,比人类的出现要早得多……
long before 早在……之前很久
before可做连词,连接时间状语从句,做介词,连接时间点或做副词。long before 连接的时间状语从句用一般现在时呼应主句的一般将来时;一般过去时呼应主句的一般过去时或过去将来时。
拓展:(1)before long “不久以后”,相当于 soon after/shortly after, 既可以指将来,也可以指过去,所以与过去时或将来时连用,在句中做状语,不可以引导从句。
(2)long ago (现在的)很久以前。
(3)“It will be long before+从句(一般现在时)”与 “It was long before+从句(一般过去时)”的意思是“过很久才……”,强调经过的时间长。
(4)“It will not be long before+从句(一般现在时)”与“It was not long before+从句(一般过去时)”,意思是“没过很久就……”,强调经过的时间短。
注意:以上短语、句型中的 long均可以改用普通的时间名词或短语,表达不同的时间长度。
①Long before, there was a big museum here.
很久以前,这里有一座大博物馆。
②I had heard of him long before I came here.
早在我来这儿很久以前我就听说过他的情况。
③Before long he went to Canada to go on with his further education.不久以后他就去加拿大继续深造了。
④It was not long before she came. 没多久她就来了。
⑤It will be long before we see each other again.
我们很久以后才会再见面。
 [即境活用]The book was published ______ it was written.
A.soon before       B.long before
C.before long     D.soon after
解析:句意为“书写完后不久就出版了”,故选 soon after。
答案:D
B2U5
1.At last feeling very upset and sensitive, Freddy and his band realized that they must leave the country before it became too painful for them.最后,由于深感苦恼,神经高度紧张,弗雷迪和他的乐队意识到他们必须在自己感到太痛苦之前离开这个国家。
before做连词表示时间时,根据其在句中的实际情况,译法有多种,具体可译为:
 (1)在……之前
(2)……(之后)才……
(3)(不多久)就……
(4)以免……
(5)还没来得及……就……
(6)(宁愿……)也不愿……
①We lived in Paris before moving to London.
我们搬到伦敦之前住在巴黎。
②It was a long time before I got to sleep again.
很长一段时间之后我才重新入睡。
③It wasn’t long before she came back.
不久她就回来了。
④Lock your bike before it gets stolen.
锁好你的自行车,以免被偷。
⑤Before John stopped her, she ran out.
约翰还没来得及阻止她,她就跑了出去。
⑥I’d shoot myself before I apologized to her.
我宁死也不向她道歉。
 [即境活用1](2009?上海卷) You can’t borrow books from the school library ______ you get your student card.
A.before        B.if
C.while        D.as
解析:句意:在你没有学生卡之前,你不能在学校图书馆借书。before在……之前;if如果;while当……时候;as随着,因为。
答案:A
2.Music is more_than just sound.
音乐决不仅仅是声音。
more than+数词,“……以上;多于……”,等于 over
+名词,“不仅仅;不只;超过;远不止”
+动词,“十分;大大地;远远地;不仅仅”
+...can/could+v.“不能”
+adj./adv.,“非常;十分;更加”
①By then he was more than fifty.
那时他已经50多岁了。
②Peace is much more than the absence of war.
和平不仅仅意味着没有战争。
③He more than smiled; he laughed out.
他岂止是微笑,他简直是大笑了。
④That's more than I can tell you.
这一点我是不能告诉你的。
⑤He is more than selfish. 他非常自私。
拓展:(1)more+adj./n.+than+adj./n..与其说……倒不如说……
(2)no more than+num.=only 仅仅
(3)not more than+num.=at most 至多
(4)no more+adj./adv.+than...和……一样不……
(5)not more+adj./adv.+than... 不如……
(6)more than one “不止一个”,做主语或修饰主语时,谓语动词用单数。
 [即境活用2] (1)Lizzie was ______ to see her friend off at the airport.
A.a little more than sad 
B.more than a little sad
C.sad more than a little 
D.a little more than sad
解析:more than+adj./adv. 意为“非常,很”。本句意为“Lizzie很伤心地在机场为她的朋友送行”。
答案:B
 (2)—Tom is very stupid. He failed to pass the exam once again.
—He is ______ than stupid.
A.lazier     B.no lazier
C.more lazy    D.lazier rather
解析:more+adj.+than 意为“与其说……倒不如说……”。答句句意为:“与其说他笨倒不如说他懒。”
答案:C
3. before引导时间状语从句
[应用3] (1)—How long do you think it will be______China sends a manned spaceship to the moon?
—Perhaps two or three years.
A. when    B. until
C. that    D. before
 (2)—It's a long time ______I last saw you.
—Yes, and it will be another month ______we can meet again.
A.before; since    B.when; before
C.since; when    D.since; before
 (3)(2009?北京四中)She was so angry that she rushed out into the rain ______I could stop her.
A. until    B. before
C. when    D. unless
 (1)It will be long/some time before sb. do/does sth.是典型句式。意为“要过很久/一些时间某人才……”。
答案:D
(2)第一空表示“自上次见到你已有很久不见了”,用 since;第二空表示“再过一个月又会见面的”,用 before。
答案:D
(3)考查 before引导时间状语从句,意为“在……之前;还没来得及”。
答案:B
B3U1
The country, covered with cherry tree flowers, looks as_though it is covered with pink snow.
整个国度到处是盛开的樱花,看上去就像覆盖了一层粉红色的雪。
as though/as if...“好像”,可引导表语从句,也可引导方式状语从句。
It looks as though you are ill today.
今天你看上去好像病了。
He acted as if nothing had happened.
他表现得若无其事。
拓展:(1)as if/as though 引导表语从句时,如果是客观的事实,用真实的语气;如果是不可能发生的事,只是一种想象、猜测,则用虚拟语气。
The clouds are gathering. It looks as if it is going to rain.乌云密布,天看起来像要下雨了。
It looks as if the sky was/were falling down.
天看起来好像要塌下来似的。
 (2)as if/as though 引导方式状语从句,要用虚拟语气。
He talks as if he was/were the owner of the world. (与现在相反,从句谓语动词用一般过去时)
他说起话来好像他主宰这个世界似的。
He talks as if he had been to the moon.
(与过去相反,从句谓语动词用过去完成时)
他说起话来好像他去过月球似的。
She talks and talks as if she would never stop.(与将来相反,从句谓语动词用过去将来时)
她说呀说呀,好像永远也说不完。
 (3)as if引导方式状语从句时可用省略形式,后面接名词、形容词、副词和介词短语,也可跟分词或不定式。如:
①He talks as if a philosopher.
他谈论起来就好像是一个哲学家似的。
②The lady cried and laughed as if mad.
这位女士哭了又笑,好像疯了。
③Tom dropped his head and didn‘t dare say a word, as if not knowing the answer.
汤姆低垂着头不敢说话,好像不知道答案。
④He talks as if drunk.
从他谈话的样子来看他是醉了。
⑤Tom opened his mouth as if to say something.
汤姆张开嘴好像要说什么。
 [即境活用] (1)Eliza remembers everything exactly as if it ______yesterday.
A.was happening    B.happens
C.has happened                 D.happened
解析:考查 as if 从句中的时态。由语境知选D。
答案:D
 (2) The man we followed suddenly stopped as if ______ whether he was going in the right direction.
A.seeing     B.having seen
C.to see     D.to have seen
解析:考查 as if从句中的省略。“停下来去看……”用不定式 to see。
答案:C
 (3)The gentleman will be devoted to Lily forever, ______ she treats him badly.
A.even though    B.however
C.nevertheless    D.as though
解析:考查状语从句。句子表示让步关系,故选 even though“即使”。
答案:A
B3U2
1.Nothing could be better... 再没有比这更好的了……
此句中形容词(或副词)的比较级 better与否定词 nothing连用,表达最高级的含义。常用的否定词有 no, not, never, nothing, nobody, hardly等与比较级连用,表示最高级的含义。
①I think nothing is more pleasant than travelling.
我想没有什么比旅行更令人愉快的了。
②Nobody loves money better than he.
没人比他更贪财。
③—Did you sleep well last night? 你昨晚睡得怎样?
—Never better, like a rock. 从来没这么好过,像块石头。


拓展:下列结构也可表示最高级的含义:
(1)否定词+so+adj./adv.(原级)
such+adj.(原级)+n.
(2)adj./adv.(比较级)+than+
any other+n. (单数)
any of the other+n. (复数)
①You haven't done such a foolish thing!
你从没有做过这么傻的事!(这是你做过的最傻的事。)
②Bill runs faster than any other boy
any of the other boys in his class.
在班里比尔跑得比别的男孩快。
 [即境活用1] (1)(2008?海南东方模拟)—Did you listen to Mr Jackson's lecture?
—Yes, I have never heard a ______ one.
A.more exciting      B.more excited
C.most exciting     D.most excited
解析:考查否定词与比较级连用表示最高级意义,即 never...a more exciting one。
答案:A
 (2)(2009?河北唐山期末)—Who is your favourite basketball player in China?
—Yao Ming, of course. No one plays ______.
A.better    B.best
C.good    D.well
解析:No one plays better. 意为“没有人(比他)打得更好”。
答案:A
2.He could not have Yong Hui getting away with telling people lies! 他不可能让咏慧哄骗人们后跑掉!
have sb. doing 在此表示“允许或容忍(某事物)发生”。此处的 have常用在否定句中,特别是用在 will not, cannot 等之后。
归纳:(1)have sb. do sth. “使某人做某事”,不定式做宾补省略 to,但其被动式(sb. be made to do sth.)不能省略 to。含此种“使得”意义的其他动词还有 make, let, lead, drive等,如: No one can have Tom do this. 没人能使汤姆做这件事。
(2)have sth. done 包含两层意思:一种是“请别人做某事”;另一种为“承担外界或别人做某事的后果”。
 (3)have sb. (sth.) doing 有两层含义:一种是“使……处于某种状态或作出某种反应”;另一种是“允许、听任某种事情发生”,这种用法一般用于否定句中。
(4)have sth. to do 意为“有某事要做”,have 意为“有,拥有”。不定式 to do是宾语 sth.的定语,句子的主语是不定式动作的执行者。如果是 to be done做定语时,说明该不定式是由别人发出的。
①It is rude of you to speak to Father like that and I won't have you speaking to Father like that in future.
那样跟父亲说话很粗鲁,今后我不会再容忍你那样跟父亲说话。
②He had his audience listening attentively.
他吸引住了听众的注意力。
③No one can have me leave the office.
没有人能使我离开办公室。
④She had her bag stolen.
她的包被偷了。
⑤I have some letters to type.
我有些信要打。(“我”自己动手打)
⑥I have some letters to be typed.
我有几封信需要打。(需要找别人打)
 [即境活用2] (1)We can't have people ______ late all the time.
A.arrive    B.to arrive
C.arriving    D.arrived
解析:用于否定句中 can't have sb. doing 意为“不能允许……”。
答案:C
 (2)Is this TV set ______ you wish to have ______?
A.the one; repaired    B.which; it repaired
C.the one; it repaired    D.which; repaired
解析:第一空填 the one做先行词,其后为省略 which的定语从句,且 which在从句中做 have的宾语,故选A。
答案:A
 (3)—Mr Smith, do you have something ______ at this moment?
—No, thanks. I'll call you if any.
A.to be typed    B.to type
C.typed     D.typing
解析:考查 have something to be done结构,因为不定式的主语不是句子主语 you。
答案:A
3.Why_don't_you sit down and try a meal? 你为什么不坐下来吃顿饭呢?
Why don't you...?=Why not do...?为什么不……?(表示建议)
①Why don't you have a try once again?
=Why not have a try once again?
为什么不再试一下呢?
②Why don't you call him right now?
=Why not call him right now?
为什么不立刻给他打个电话?
拓展:向别人提建议也可以用:
(1)had better do... 最好做……
(2)Let's do..., shall we? 让我们做……,好吗?
(3)I advise you (not) to do... 我劝你(别)做……
(4)I suggest that you (not) do...  我建议你(别)做……
(5)Can't we do...? 难道我们不可以做……吗?
 (6)What/How about doing...? 做……怎么样?
(7)Will you please do...? 请你做……好吗?
(8)Would you like/love to do...? 你愿意做……吗?
(9)I wonder if you should do...
我想知道你是不是应该做……
(10)Shall we do...? 我们做……好吗?
[即境活用3] —It's a long time since I saw my sister.
—______ her this weekend?
A.Why not visit    B.Why not to visit
C.Why not visiting   D.Why don't visit
解析:Why not do...?=Why don't you do...? 意为:“为什么不……呢?”用于提出建议。
答案:A
B3U3
1.Well, towards nightfall I found myself carried_out to sea by a strong wind.哎,傍晚时分,我发现自己被一阵大风刮到了大海上。
(1)“find oneself+宾语补足语”,意为“(突然)发现自己……”。
①When he came to, he found himself in a deserted island. 他醒来后,发现自己在一个荒凉的岛上。
②On hearing this, I found myself in an embarrassing position. 听到这后,我突然发现自己处在很尴尬的境地。
 (2)find oneself doing sth. 突然发现或惊奇地发现自己在做某事,表示吃惊或不相信等情感。
①Dick found himself walking in the direction of Mike's place. 迪克突然发现自己在朝迈克家的方向走去。
②When he came to, he found himself lying in the hospital.他醒来后,发现自己躺在了医院里。
(3)find oneself done (突然)发现自己被……;不知不觉中发现自己被……
Then I found myself surrounded by half a dozen boys.
然后我就发现自己已被六个男孩围住了。
 [即境活用1] Toward ______ sunset, he found himself ______ to a deserted island.
A.the; taken    B./; taken
C.the; taking    D./; taking
解析:第一空 toward 后接时间名词时,名词前通常不加冠词;第二空 “find oneself+过去分词”,过去分词做宾补,表被动。
答案:B
2.The next morning _I’d just about given myself up for lost when I was spotted by a ship.
第二天早上,我正感到绝望的时候,一艘船发现了我。
had just done...when...刚做完某事,这时……
be doing...when...正在做……这时……
be about to do...when...正要做……这时……
be on the point of doing...when...正要做……这时……
①I had just gone to bed when the telephone rang.
我刚上床睡觉,这时电话响了。
②He was reading newspapers when he heard his name called.他正在读报,这时听到有人叫他的名字。
③I was about to go out when an unexpected visitor came.我正要出门,一位不速之客来访了。
[即境活用2] I had finished my homework and ______ watch the Olympics when the power was cut off.
A.was going to    B.was about to
C.was to     D.would
解析:be about to do...when...表示“正要做……这时……”,符合语境和语意。
答案:B
3.You must come whenever you want and have whatever you like. 您什么时候想来,您想吃点什么,你就一定要来呀!
(1)whenever, wherever, however 引导让步状语从句,相当于 no matter when/where/how。
(2)whatever, whoever, whichever, whomever 既可引导名词性从句,也可引导让步状语从句,在引导让步状语从句时相当于 no matter what/who/which/whom。
(3)“no matter+疑问词”只能引导让步状语从句,可放在主句前或主句后。
 (4)however 的用法主要有以下三点需要注意:
①用做连接副词,相当于 no matter how,引导让步状语从句,意思是“不管怎样……;无论如何……”,具体结构为:
however+形容词/副词+主语+谓语。例如:
However rich people are, they always seem anxious to make more money.
无论人们有多富裕,他们似乎总是渴望挣到更多的钱。
②用做连词,表示“不管用什么方法”。
③however 还可作“然而”讲,是副词,不能引导从句,常用逗号隔开。
 (5)whichever, whatever 在句中还可做定语。
Eat whichever cake you like.
你可以吃任何一块你想吃的蛋糕。
 [即境活用3] (1)(2008?辽宁)______ hungry I am, I never seem to be able to finish off this loaf of bread.
A.Whatever    B.Whenever
C.Wherever    D.However
解析:“however+adj.+主+谓”表示“无论多么……”。
答案:D
 (2)______team wins on Saturday will go through to the national championships.
A.No matter what    B.No matter which
C.Whatever     D.Whichever
解析:根据句子结构可知,本题考查名词性从句,排除A、B项。whatever和 whichever 的不同在于前者没有范围而后者有范围,本句中指“周六参加比赛的获胜队”,是有范围的,故选 whichever。
答案:D
3. ~ever与no matter wh~的用法
[应用3] (1)In peace,too,the Red Cross is expected to send help______there is human suffering.
A.whoever    B.however
C.whatever     D.wherever
解析:(1)句意为“在和平时期,红十字会也应把帮助送到人们受苦难的地方”。
答案:D
 (2)(2009?福建泉州高三质检)All the books I have are here. You may borrow ______ you like.
A.whatever    B.whichever
C.whenever    D.however
解析:(2)whichever强调“在某一范围内任何一个人/物”。whatever指“任何(某事)”,不强调范围。
答案:B
(3)He tried his best to solve the problem, ______difficult it was.
A. however    B. no matter
C. whatever   D. although
解析:(3)however 引导让步状语从句,等于 no matter how, 若用 although,应改为 although it was difficult。
答案:A
 (4)______,I have to put it away and focus my attention on study this week.
A. However the story is amusing
B. No matter amusing the story is
C. However amusing the story is
D. No matter how the story is amusing
解析:(4)however=no matter how,引导让步状语从句,后接“adj./adv.+主+谓”结构。
答案:C
B3U4
1.This produced a chain reaction, which made it possible for life to develop.
这就形成一个连锁反应,使生命发展成为可能。
本句中 it做形式宾语,真正的宾语为不定式短语 for life to develop。it做形式宾语还可以代替动名词或从句。
①He thinks it his duty to help others.
他认为帮助别人是他的职责。
②He made it a rule to get up at six every morning.
他把每天早晨6点起床作为一项规定。
③We consider it no use going to the seaside.
我们认为去海边没用处。
④We all consider it a pity that you didn‘t come to the party.
我们都认为你没有来参加聚会很遗憾。
⑤I hate it when people speak with their mouths full.
我不喜欢人们说话时嘴里有满满的东西。
⑥You may depend on it that we’re honest.
你可以相信我们是诚实的。
拓展:it还可以做形式主语,代替真正的主语——不定式(或不定式复合结构)、动名词(或动名词复合结构)或从句。
(1)It's+adj.+for sb. to do sth. 对某人来说做某事是……的。
(2)It's+adj.+of sb. to do sth. 某人做某事……
(3)It's/was/...who/that...是某人/某物做……
 (4)It is/was the+序数词+time+that...+主语+have/had done...
这是某人第……次做……
(5)It is (high) time that...+主语+did/should do...
是……该做……的时候了。
(6)It's said/reported/believed/announced that...
据说/据报道/据猜测/据称……
 (7)It‘s a pity/a shame/a wonder...that...
可惜/遗憾/奇怪……的是……
(8)It happens/appears/seems that... 恰巧/看来/好像……
(9)It looks/seems as if... 看起来好像……
(10)It’s up to sb. to do... 该某人做……了
 [即境活用1] (1)He didn't make ______ clear when and where the meeting would be held.
A.this         B.that
C.it        D.these
解析:it做形式宾语,真正宾语为 when and where从句。
答案:C
 (2)I'd appreciate ______ if you would like to teach me how to use the computer.
A.that    B.it
C.this    D.you
解析:it做形式宾语,代替 if从句。
答案:B
2.But when I tried to step forward, I found I was carried twice as far as on the earth and fell over.
而当我试着向前迈步时,我发觉我被送出很远,步子的跨度竟是在地球上的两倍,因而我摔倒了。
倍数的表达方式有:
 (1)“A+倍数+形容词或副词的比较级+than+B”,表示“A比B大(长、高、宽等)多少倍”。
(2)“A+倍数+as+形容词或副词的原级+as+B”,表示“A是B的多少倍”。
(3)“A+倍数+the size/height/length/width, etc.+of+B”,表示“A是B的多少倍”。
 (4)“A+倍数+what?从句”,表示“A是……的多少倍”。
①Asia is four times as large as Europe.
=The size of Asia is four times that of Europe.
=Asia is four times the size of Europe.
=Asia is three times larger than Europe.
亚洲是欧洲的四倍大(比欧洲大三倍)。
②Our total income of 1994 was double that of 1992.
我们1994年的总收入是1992年的两倍。
③The production now is three times what it was ten years ago.现在的产量是十年前的三倍。
 [即境活用2] (1)Though it's a challenging job, he did it ______ it took me.
A.one?third a time    B.one?third time
C.the one?third time    D.one?third the time
解析:考查倍数比较的句型,即“倍数+the+n.”结构。
答案:D
 (2)What a table! I've never seen such a thing before. It is ______ it is long.
A.half not as wide as    B.wide not as half as
C.not half as wide as    D.as wide as not half
解析:考查倍数比较 half+as...as。
答案:C
3....walking does need a bit of practice now that gravity has changed. ……既然重力改变了,行走的确需要一些练习
 (1)句中 does need是一种强调句式。
①在一般句型中,do (does, did)常用来强调谓语动词的语气,在句中要重读,译为“真的”“的确”“确实”等。
You do look nice today. 你今天看起来真的很漂亮。
Jack said he would come and he did come.
杰克说他要来,他果真来了。
②在祈使句中,do表示强烈的请求,而不是命令,有时它可以使邀请对方的心意显得更加客气、热情、友好,而且亲切,此时的 do可译为“千万,务必”等。
Please do sit down. 务必请坐下。
Do be careful next time. 下次千万要小心。
 (2)now that 在句中引导原因状语从句,相当于 since,意为“既然,由于”,that 可省略。
Now that you have finished your work, you‘d better have a rest. 既然工作已经做完了,你最好休息一下。
辨析:now that/because/since/as/for
now that 说明已经成为事实的原因,常译为“既然”。
because 语气最强,回答的是用 why提问的问句,表示直接的或为人所不知的原因。
since与 as语气较 because 弱,表示显而易见或已为人所知的原因。since 侧重主句,as主从并重,语气比 since 弱。
for是连词,用来补充说明理由或提供一种解释,不一定是真正的原因,不能放在主句前面。
—Why did you do this? 你为什么这么做?
—Because it is good for you. 因为这对你有好处。
Since you have known it, I won‘t repeat it.
既然你已经知道了,我就不重复了。
Wear strong shoes as we shall do a lot of walking.
穿上结实的鞋子,因为我们要走不少路。
It rained last night, for the ground is wet.
昨晚下雨了,因为地面是湿的。
 [即境活用3] (1)In my opinion, what Fei Junlong and Nie Haisheng ______ good to our country's international positions.
A.did do does   B.did does do
C.does did do   D.do do did
解析:第一个 did是 what主语从句中的谓语动词;第二个 does强调谓语 do good to,故选B。
答案:B
B4U1
1.Only_after her mother came to help her for the first few months was she allowed to begin her project.她母亲头几个月来帮她的忙,这才使她得以开始自己的计划。
 (1)only在句首修饰做状语的副词或介词短语时,句子要倒装。
(2)only在句首修饰状语从句时,主句要用倒装语序,从句不用倒装语序。
(3)only在句首修饰句子的主语时,不用倒装语序。
①Only then did I realize the importance of communication.只有到那时我才意识到交流的重要性。
②Only in this way can we improve our English.
只有以这种方法,我们才能提高英语水平。
③Only after you have reached eighteen can you join the army.只有当你年满十八周岁后,你才能参军。
④Only he can answer the question.
只有他能回答这个问题。

[即境活用1] (1)______a mobile phone can you ring ______ you want to talk with anywhere.
A.Using; whoever
B.Only on; whomever
C.Only by; whatever
D.With; anyone
答案:B
解析:考查“only+介词短语”置于句首时,主句要倒装,以及who(m)ever, whatever和anyone的区别。由主句can you...倒装,可排除A、D两项。“用手机”应用on a mobile phone或by mobile phone,故排除C。
 (2)Only by following this method ______.
A.we can study English well
B.can we be able to study English well
C.can we study English well
D.study English well can we
答案:C
解析:only引导的状语提前,句子要倒装。B项中的can不能与be able to连用。
2.Further reading made me realize that it_was hard work and determination as well as her gentle nature that got her into medical school. 进一步阅读使我了解到,是苦干、决心及温和的天性使她走进了医学院的大门。
强调句型:It is/was+被强调成分+that/who+其他部分
提示:(1)只能强调句中的主语、宾语和状语,不能用该句式强调句子谓语。
(2)如果强调两个以上的并列主语,该句式仍用 is/was,不用 are/were。
(3)强调部分为表示“人”的名词时,可用 who;其他情况则用 that。
(4)强调 not...until 句型时,要将主句中的 not一起强调。即 It is/was not until...that...
(5)Is/Was it+被强调成分+that...?为其一般疑问句形式。
 (6)特殊疑问词+is/was+it+被强调成分+that...?为其特殊疑问句形式。
(7)强调句的特殊疑问句如果用于宾语从句中,该强调句式要用陈述语序。
①It is I that/who am going for a holiday with Mary.
是我要跟玛丽一块儿去度假。
②When is it that we will have a meeting?
我们什么时候开会?
③It was not until he took off his dark glasses that I realized he was a famous film star.
直到他摘下墨镜我才认出他是位著名的影星。
④It was in this town that he was brought up.
他是在这个镇上被养大的。(强调句)
⑤It was this town where/in which he was brought up.
这是他被抚养长大的城镇。(定语从句)
 [即境活用2](1)(2008?重庆)It was not until midnight ______ they reached the campsite.
A.that      B.when
C.while      D.as
答案:A
解析:考查强调句型。强调时间状语 not until midnight。
 (2)—What did she want to know, Tom?
—She wondered ______ we could complete the experiment.
A.when was it    B.it was when that
C.it was when    D.when it was that
答案:D
解析:考查强调句型的特殊疑问句用于宾语从句中。
2. 强调句型
[应用2] (1)It was ______ back home after the experiment.
A.not until midnight did he go
B.until midnight that he didn’t go
C.not until midnight that he went
D.until midnight when he didn’t go
答案:C
 (2)It was in Beihai Park ______ they made a date for the first time ______ the old couple told us their love story.
A.where; that     B.that; that
C.where; when     D.that; when
答案:A
(3)-He was nearly drowned once.
-When was that?
-______ was in 2000 ______ he was having a holiday in Qingdao.
A.That; since     B.It; when
C.That; before     D.It; that
答案: D
 (4)Why! I know nothing about Sanlu Milk Powder Incident. ______ you want me to say?
A.What it is that    B.What is it that
C.How is it that     D.How it is that
答案: B
 (5)-Can you tell me ______ makes this book so popular?
-Interesting plots and vivid characters.
A.what is it which 
B.what it is which
C.what is it that 
D.what it is that
答案: D
B4U2
1.Dr Yuan Longping grows what_is_called_super_hybrid_rice.
袁隆平博士种植的是被称为“超级杂交水稻”的稻种。
what is called super hybrid rice用做grows的宾语从句,为一名词性从句,也可称为whatclause;而且what在从句中可用做主语、宾语或者表语。此从句在结构上相当于“the+名词+定语从句”。
①After a hard time they came to what is called America today.艰难的努力后他们来到了现在称作美洲的地方。
②We now live in what is called the Information Age.
我们现在生活在所谓的信息时代。
③He graduated from what was called a key high school.
他毕业于一所所谓的重点高中。
 [即境活用1] (1)(2008?浙江卷)Some children want to challenge themselves by learning a language different from ______ their parents speak at home.
A.what      B.that
C.which       D.one
答案:A
解析:句意:一些孩子想学习一门不同于家中父母所讲的语言来挑战自我。what引导名词性从句,在句中做from的宾语。
 (2)A modern city has been set up in ______ was a wasteland ten years ago.
A.what      B.which
C.that      D.where
答案:A
解析:该句意为:一座现代化的城市在十年前是一片废墟的地方建立起来。
2.He would much rather keep time for his hobbies. 他宁愿把时间花在自己的爱好上。
(1)would rather 意为“宁愿,更愿意”,后接动词原形,否定式是在 would rather 后加 not/never。
①—Shall we dine out?
—I‘d rather stay at home.
——我们要不要出去吃饭?
——我宁愿留在家里。
②I‘d rather not tell anybody about it.
我不愿把这事告诉任何人。
(2)would rather do sth. than do sth./would do sth. rather than do sth. 意为“宁愿做某事而不去做某事”。
①I would rather listen to others than talk myself.
我愿意听别人说,自己不愿意说。
②He would rather die than give in. 他宁死不屈。
 (3)would rather have done sth. 意为“要是做过某事就好了;宁愿做过某事”,表示后悔或遗憾等语气。
I would rather have taken his advice yesterday.
我昨日要是听了他的建议就好了。
(4)would rather 后接 that从句时,从句中的谓语动词用过去时态虚拟语气。
①I would rather (that) he didn‘t come.
我宁愿他没来。
②I’d rather you told me the truth.
我更愿意你给我讲实话。
 [即境活用2] (1)Would you mind my using your computer for a little while?
—______.
A.No, please don't    B.I'd rather you didn't
C.I'm afraid not     D.Sure, it's my pleasure
答案:B
解析:考查交际用语。I'd rather you didn't. 常用来委婉拒绝别人的请求。
 (2)I would rather ______ the football match last night with my friends; otherwise, I would have finished my paperwork by now.
A.not have watched    B.not watch
C.hadn't watched       D.haven't watched
答案:A
解析:考查 would rather (not)+have done 意为“宁愿(未)做过某事”,表示后悔或遗憾。
2. would rather的用法
[应用2] (1)-Did you say anything at the meeting?
-Yes, but ______ it.
A.I’d rather not do
B.I’d rather not doing
C.I’d rather not have done
D.I’d rather not did
答案:C
解析:would rather not have done,表示“宁愿没有做,而实际上做了”。
 (2)-Would you rather ______ there tomorrow?
-No. I’d rather he ______ there instead of me.
A.to go; will go     B.go; went
C.go; will go        D.going; shall go
答案:B
解析:Would you rather do sth.?“你愿意做……吗?”因此第一个空要用动词原形;第二个空要用虚拟语气,即would rather sb. did sth.“宁愿别人做……”。
 (3)-Will you join us in playing cards?
-Thank you, but ______ at the moment.
A.I’d like to not     B.I’m afraid so
C.I’d rather not     D.I’d better not to
答案:C
解析:A项中的not要放在to前才对;B项中的so要改为I can’t才对;D项中的to应去掉才对。
 (4)-The final exam is coming. Would you mind my staying up late, going over my lessons?
-I’d rather you ______. With the light on, I can’t fall asleep.
A.don’t      B.didn’t
C.won’t      D.haven’t
答案:B
解析:“would rather+从句”时,从句的谓语动词用过去时,选B。
B4U3
1.As Victor Hugo once said, “Laughter is the sun that drives winter from the human face”, and up_to_now_nobody has been able to do this better_than Charlie Chaplin. 维克多?雨果曾经说过,“笑容如阳光,驱走人们脸上的冬天”。关于这一点,直到今天也没有人能比查理?卓别林做得更好。
 (1)as在此引导定语从句,修饰后面整个句子,此时,定语从句的位置比较灵活,可放在句首、句中或句末,译为“正如,正像”。
①As all his friends agree, he was unusually warm-hearted, loving and generous.
正如他所有的朋友都认为的那样,他非常热心、可亲、慷慨。
②I am as you can imagine short enough of money.
正如你所想象的那样,我很缺钱。
③He was a teacher, as was clear from his manner.
正如根据他的举止所断定的,他是一位老师。
 (2)up to now 意为“迄今;到现在为止”,是多用于现在完成时的时间状语,常可与 until now, by now, so far 互换。
①Up to now, about 30 foreign companies have set up branches in this developing zone.
到现在为止,已有大约30家外国公司在这个开发区设立了分公司。
②They have raised more than $1 000 000 for this project up to now/until now/so far.
到目前为止,他们已经为这个项目筹集到一百多万美元了。
 (3)...nobody has been able to do this better than Charlie Chaplin.
当形容词或副词的比较级出现在否定句中时,往往不表示否定的意义而是表示充分的肯定。
—I think students should have more of their own time. Don‘t you think so?
我认为学生应该有更多的属于他们自己的时间。你不这么认为吗?
—I can’t agree more. (=I completely agree.)
完全赞同。
 [即境活用1] —Shall I give you a ride as you live so far away?
—Thank you. ______.
A.It couldn‘t be better   B.Of course you can
C.If you like                          D.It's up to you
答案:A
解析:It couldn't be better. “再好不过了”,相当于 It's the best.
2.“Well, it certainly will be this morning,” the man said, “because I happen_to_be flying it!”“啊,那今天上午肯定要晚点了,”那人说,“因为碰巧我要驾驶那班飞机!”
happen to do/be 碰巧句型 Sb. happens to do sth.可以转换成 It happens that sb. does sth.,但使用时要注意复合句中从句谓语的时态要与简单句中的动词不定式的形式相呼应。
①When I went to see him, he happened to be away on holiday.
(=When I went to see him, it happened that he was away on holiday.)
我去看他时,他碰巧在外度假。
②Joseph came to borrow my skiing boards yesterday, but I happened to have lent them to my cousin last week.(=...but it happened that I lent them to my cousin last week.)
约瑟夫昨天来借滑雪板,不巧的是我上星期借给我的表弟了。
 [即境活用2] When the bridge fell down, several cars happened ______ on it.
A.to run                   B.running
C.to be running                 D.that they were running
答案:C
解析:句意:那座桥坍塌时,正巧有好几辆汽车正在上面行驶。happen to do 中不定式根据语境可选择不同的形式。
3.The tramp, a poor and homeless man with a moustache, wore large trousers, worn-out shoes and a_small_round_black_hat. 这个流浪汉,一个留着小胡子的穷苦的无家可归的人,穿着大裤子、破鞋子,头顶着黑色的小圆帽。
a small round black hat 中的 hat前有三个形容词做定语,在英语中多个形容词修饰名词时的顺序是:限制词(冠词、物主代词、指示代词、不定代词)+数词(序数词、基数词)+描绘性形容词(nice, good, interesting, beautiful...)+特征形容词(大小、长短、高低、形状、年龄、新旧)+颜色形容词+国籍、出处+物质、材料+用途、类别+中心名词。我们可以用下面的一段顺口溜来帮助记忆:
限定描绘大长高,形状年龄和新老。
颜色国籍出材料,作用类别紧跟着。
①all these last few years
所有这些逝去的岁月
②some beautiful little red flowers
一些美丽的小红花
③the first beautiful white Chinese military jeep
第一辆漂亮的白色中国军用吉普车
 [即境活用3] —Is it Jim who is driving the new car?
—Probably. I know he has recently bought a ______ car.
A.shiny black German 
B.black shiny German
C.shiny German black 
D.black German shiny
答案:A
解析:考查形容词的排列顺序。
B4U4
Not_all_cultures greet each other the same way, nor_are_they comfortable in the same way with touching or distance between people. 各种文化背景下人们互致问候的方式不尽相同,身体接触和相互间距离的程度也并不一样。
 (1)not all...是部分否定,与 not构成部分否定的词还有:both, every, everyone, everywhere, everybody, everything, always, entirely, wholly, altogether。
Not every student passed the exam.
并非所有的学生都通过了考试。
Not all of us can speak English.
并非我们都会说英语。
提示:表示全部否定的词有:none, nobody, neither, never, nothing, nowhere, no one, not at all。
 (2)本句后半句是 nor 引起的倒装句,nor 位于句首时,句子需要部分倒装。
She doesn‘t like dance, nor does her sister.
她不喜欢跳舞,她姐姐也不喜欢。
归纳拓展:含有否定意义的词置于句首往往引起部分倒装:
①含有否定意义的副词放在句首,如:not, never, seldom, hardly, rarely, little 等。
Never before has our country been as united as it is today. 我们国家从没像现在这样团结。
②含有否定意义的连词置于句首,如: neither...nor, no sooner...than..., scarcely...when..., hardly...when...等。
No sooner had he left home than it began to rain.
他一出家门天就开始下雨。
③含有否定意义的介词短语置于句首,如: by no means, in no time, in no case, on no account等。
On no account must you accept any money against your conscience.
你无论如何不能违背自己的良心而得到钱财。
 [即境活用] (2008?辽宁卷)Bill wasn't happy about the delay of the report by John, and ______.
A.I was neither       B.neither was I
C.I was either         D.either was I
答案:B
解析:考查 neither 用于句首,倒装。
1.Whichever and whatever you like, there is a theme park for you!
不管你喜欢哪一个,喜欢什么,总有一个主题公园适合你!
whichever和 whatever 的用法
(1)whichever 无论哪一个,任何一个。既可以引导名
词性从句,也可引导让步状语从句。
no matter which (=whichever) 只能引导让步状语
从句。
whatever 不管/无论什么。既可引导名词性从句,
也可引导让步状语从句。
no matter what (=whatever) 只能引导让步状语
从句。
whoever 无论谁,任何人。既可引导名词性从句,也
可引导让步状语从句。
no matter who(=whoever)只能引导让步状语从句。
① Take whatever you want.
你可以拿你想要的任何东西。(≠no matter what,引导宾语从句)
②The content is the same, whichever book you choose.
不管你选哪一本书,内容都是一样的。(=no matter which, 引导让步状语从句)
③ Whatever he does seems wrong in his father's eyes.
无论他做什么,在他父亲看来都是错的。(≠no matter what,引导主语从句)
④Whatever she does to him, he still loves her.
无论她怎样对他,他都爱她。(=no matter what,引导让步状语从句)
⑤Whoever (=No matter who) asks him for advice, he is always ready to help.
不管谁来求助于他,他都乐于帮助。
⑥Whoever(≠No matter who) breaks the law should be punished. 任何犯法的人都该受到惩罚。
提示:whichever和 whatever的区别在于:前者通常有范围,而后者没有范围。
 (2)“no matter+wh-结构”只能引导让步状语从句,都可用相应的 wh-ever 代替。
no matter where=wherever 无论哪里
no matter when=whenever 无论何时
no matter how=however 无论怎样
① Come and see me whenever(= no matter when) it's convenient to you.
你何时方便,何时就来看我。
② Wherever (=No matter where) you go, whatever (=no matter what) you do and I will be right here waiting for you.无论你去何方,无论你做何事,我就在这儿等你。
③However (=No matter how)  difficult it is, we must complete the task.
不论多么难,我们都要完成任务。
[即境活用1] ______team wins on Saturday will go through to the national championships.
A.No matter what     B.No matter which
C.Whatever     D.Whichever
解析:whichever引导名词性从句,在句中充当定语,此时不能换成 no matter which。句意为“无论哪个队在周六获胜都将直接参加全国锦标赛”。
答案:D
2.With all these attractions, no_wonder tourism is increasing wherever there is a Disneyland. 有这么多引人入胜的东西,难怪哪里有迪斯尼乐园,哪里的旅游业就会发展。
(It is) No wonder (that)... 难怪……;……并不奇怪
①(It is) No wonder you were late! 难怪你来晚了!
②(It is) No wonder that he was so tired!
难怪他这么累!
拓展:(1)It is a wonder that...
令人惊奇的是……
(2)What a wonder!
多么令人惊异!/真想不到!
(3)wonder +at/about 对……疑惑/奇怪
+wh-从句
+wh-+to do奇怪;想知道
+if...用于请求别人做某事
或请求对方许可,语气委婉
①It is a wonder that he remained alive after dropping from the roof of a ten-storied building.
他从一幢十层楼的楼顶上摔下来,但仍然活着,真是一个奇迹。
②I wonder at his rudeness.
我对他的粗鲁感到奇怪。
③He wondered why people built ugly houses, when they could have built beautiful ones.
他很奇怪为什么人们本可以造出漂亮的房屋,而偏偏建造出丑陋的房子来。
④She was wondering whether to go back or stay.
她不知是回去好还是留下来好。
⑤I wonder if you'll help me with the luggage.
我想知道你是否能帮我提这些行李。
 [即境活用2] He hasn't slept at all for three days. ______ he is tired out.
A.There is no point    B.There is no need
C.It is no wonder    D.There is no way
解析:由题意“他已经三天没睡觉了。难怪他都累坏了”,选C。A“没有意义”;B“没有必要”;D“没门”。
答案:C
3. ~ever与no matter wh~的用法
 [应用3] (1)(2008?全国Ⅰ)The lawyer seldom wears anything other than a suit ______ the season.
A.whatever     B.wherever
C.whenever     D.however
解析:句意:无论什么季节,这位律师除了一套西装以外,很少穿其他的。whatever引导让步状语从句,whatever the season即whatever the season is。wherever“无论什么地方”;whenever“无论什么时候”;however“无论怎样”,均不符合语境要求。
答案:A
(2)(2008?浙江)______ wants to stay in a hotel has to pay their own way.
A.Anyone      B.The one
C.Whoever     D.Who
解析:句意:任何一个想住在旅馆里的人必须支付自己的费用。whoever此处引导名词性从句,相当于anyone who。anyone和the one后少who, who引导定语从句,故被排除。
答案:C
 (3)(2008?上海)______ well prepared you are, you still need a lot of luck in mountain climbing.
A.However     B.Whatever
C.No matter     D.Although
解析:句意:无论你做的准备多么充分,在爬山时,你仍会需要很多运气。however well prepared you are=no matter how well prepared you are,引导让步状语从句。
答案:A
 (4)(2007?山东Ⅰ)Could I speak to ______ is in charge of International Sales, please?
A.anyone      B.someone
C.whoever     D.no matter who
解析:本题考查whoever和no matter who的区别。句意:我可以同负责管理国际销售部的人谈一谈吗?句中to为介词,其后是名词性从句,而从句中缺少主语和关联词,故选择C。D项只能引导状语从句。
答案:C


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