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那怕老态龙钟时,也愿保持一颗天真的心。

 
 
 

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强调句型  

2012-12-20 22:05:42|  分类: 英语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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强调句型

强调句型是高中英语中一个重要的语法项目,是高考重要考点之一。其基本结构为:It + be+ 被强调部分+that+句子其余部分。本文拟结合高考试题对强调句型的用法作如下归纳。

一、基本用法

1.在强调句型中,能够被强调的句子成分通常为主语、宾语、状语等,不能用来强调谓语动词、表语、补语、让步状语、条件状语等。当被强调部分为sb.,且在句中作主语时,可用who,也可用that,其它情况一律用that。强调主语时,that后的谓语动词必须与被强调的主语人称与数保持一致。如:

I'm going to meet my friend at the airport tomorrow.→

It is I who am going to meet my friend at the airport tomorrow.(强调主语)

It is my friend that I'm going to meet at the airport tomorrow.(强调宾语)

It is at the airport that I'm going to meet my friend tomorrow.(强调地点状语)

It is tomorrow that I'm going to meet my friend at the airport.(强调时间状语)

2.在强调结构中,无论被强调的是人还是物,单数还是复数,be动词一律用单数is/was形式。如果原句的谓语动词时态是过去范畴,就用was; 如果原句的谓语动词时态是现在范畴,就用is。也可以用"情态动词+be"形式。例如:

It is Tom and Mary who will be fined.

It was yesterday that he arrived here.

It might be in the morning that he broke into the house.

3.强调句的特征是:如果我们把"It be…that…"从句中划去,所剩的正好是一个完整的句子。如:

It is not only blind men who make such stupid mistakes. 决不只是盲人才犯这样愚蠢的错误。

Not only blind men make such stupid mistakes. 它的意思仍然是完整的,只是强调意味已经失去。实际上"It be…that…"只不过是一个框架而已,它的各部份在句子中均不担任成份。

二、考点解读

1.强调句型的一般疑问句结构为:“Is /Was it+ 被强调部分+that+句子其余部分?”

例1.Was it during the Second World War ____ he died? (MET88)

A. that B. while C. in which D. then

解析:此句为强调句的一般疑问句。强调时间状语,故选A。

例2.Was _____that I saw last night at the concert?(上海97)

A. it you B. not you C. you D. that yourself

解析:此句也是强调句的一般疑问句。强调宾语,故选A。

例3.--- Wasn't it Dr. Wang who spoke to you just now?    --- ______. (上海96)

A. I didn't know he was B. Yes, it was C. No, he wasn't D. Yes, he did

解析:此句为强调句的一般疑问句的否定形式。其回答有两种可能:“Yes, it was”或“No, it wasn't”,故选B.

2.强调句的特殊疑问句结构为:特殊疑问词+is/was it that...?注意在强调句的疑问句型中,强调标志that/who后只能使用陈述语序。

例4. Why! I have nothing to confess. _____ you want me to say?(上海04)

A. What is it that B. What it is that C. How is it that D. How it is that

解析:此题考查强调句中强调疑问词时语序的排列。这是一个特殊疑问句,say后面缺少宾语,所以用what ,故选A .

例5.I have always been honest and straight forward, and it doesn't matter ____ I am making to (广东04)

A who is it B who it is C it is who D it is whom

解析: 此题考查强调句中强调疑问词时语序的排列(此处省略了that).这是一个特殊疑问句,考查被强调部分充当宾语的结构。其语序应遵循宾语从句的语序,即陈述语序。另外,在此处是做to的宾语,应用宾格whom,但在通常情况下,也可以用who代替whom ,故选B.

3.强调主语、宾语。

例6.It is these poisonous products ____ can cause the symptoms of the flu, such as headache and aching muscles. (NMET03)

A. who B. that C. how D. what

解析:此题强调主语these poisonous products. 把it is……that去掉,句意仍完整。故选B.

例7.It was how the young man had learned five foreign languages ______ attracted the audience's interest. (上海2000 春)

A. so that B. that C. what D. in which

解析:此题强调主语从句how the young man had learned five foreign languages。把it was……that去掉,句意仍完整。故选B.

例8.It was the ability to do the job ____ matters not where you come from or what you are. (NMET2000)

A. one B. that C. what D. it

解析:本题强调主语the ability to do the job.把It was……that去掉,句意仍完整。故选B。

4.强调状语 强调时间、地点、原因或方式状语时,要用that,不能用when, where, why或how。

例9.It was about 600 years ago ____ the first clock with a face and an hour hand was made. (NMET97)

A. that B. until C. before D. when

解析:这是对时间状语about 600 years ago的强调,故选A

例10.It was after he got what he had desired ___he realized it was not so important.(辽宁06)

A.that B.when C.since D. as

解析:这是对时间状语从句after he got what he had desired的强调,故选A.

例11.It was only when I reread his poems recently ____ I began to appreciate their beauty. (NMET98)

A. until B. that C. then D. so

解析:本句强调时间状语从句 when I reread his poems recently,故选B。

例12.It was because of bad weather ____ the football match had to be put off. (上海03春)

A. so B. so that C. why D. that

解析:本句强调原因状语because of bad weather, 故选D。在强调原因状语从句时,只能强调由because所引导的从句。

例13.It was where there had been a theatre ____ they built a new modern school.

A. where B. in which C. that D.so

解析:本句强调地点状语从句where there had been a theatre.故选C。

例14.It was only with the help of the local people ___ .(上海春04)

A.was the mountain climber rescued B.that the mountain climber was rescued

C.when the mountain climber was rescued D.then mountain climber was rescued

解析:本句强调方式状语only with the help of the local People.故选B

例15.It was in the book store ____ I met your brother the other day.(上海90)

A.where B.that C.in which D.in that

解析:本句强调地点状语in the book store.故选B.

特别提示:对“not...until...”结构的强调,要用“It is/was not until...that...”这一固定句型。由于否定已经前移,that后只能用肯定形式。同时要注意不能使用倒装语序。

例16.It was not ____ she took off her dark glasses ____ I realized she was a famous film star. (NMET92)

A. when; that B. until; that C. until; when D. when; then

解析:此题强调until引导的时间状语从句until she took off her dark glasses,要将not until放在一起置于It was/is之后。故选B.

例17.It was ______ back home after the experiment. (湖北04)

A. not until midnight did he go B. until midnight that he didn't go

C. not until midnight that he went D. until midnight when he didn't go

解析:此题强调until引导的时间状语until midnight,要将not until放在一起置于It was/is之后。在强调句型中不用倒装语序。故选C.

5. 强调句型与相关句型的辨析

强调句型极易与下列句型混淆,故高考也常考查这方面的内容。做题时首先判断该题是否为强调句型。把“It be …that”去掉,如果剩余部分句子结构仍然完整(被强调部分要还原到原位置),那么这个句子就是强调句;如果句子不完整,则不是强调句。

易混句型1:It be+段时间+ since ... “自从……以来”

该句型中的be动词通常为一般现在时态或现在完成时态,since 引导的从句通常是一般过去时态。如果主句是一般过去时,从句则用过去完成时。

例18.That was really a splendid evening. It' s years ____ I enjoyed myself so much.

A. when B. that C. before D. since

解析:答案为D.since引导时间状语从句,it表示时间

易混句型2:It be+点时间+ when ... "当……的时候,是……"

该句型中的 when 引导的是一个时间状语从句。Be动词的时态没有明确限制,点时间前不加介词。

例19. —Did Jack come back early last night? —Yes. It was not yet eight o'clock ____ he arrived home. (福建05 )

A. before B. when C. that D. until

解析:答案为B.when引导时间状语从句,it表示时间。

易混句型3:It be+段时间+ before ... “多久之后才……”、“不久……就……”

该句型主句中be动词的时态常是一般将来时或过去时两种时态.主句中的表语多是long, not long , days , weeks 等表示时间段的词或短语。

例20. --- How long do you think it will be _________ China sends a manned spaceship to the moon? --- Perhaps two or three years. (06福建)

A. when B. until C. that D. before

解析:答案为D.before引导时间状语从句,it表示时间.

三、强调句型的另外一种形式

在中学英语课本中还多次出现"What…be…"结构的句型(简称wh-type强调句),它同样具有很浓的强调意味,例如: What we need is more time. 我们需要更多的时间。

我们可以用对待It is/was 结构强调句的方法,把"What…be…"作为一个框架而划去,所剩的也是一个完整的句子:We need more time. 不同的是,what和be在句子中都可以担任成份。上面这个句子可以看成是What引导一个主语从句,而be则是系动词,后接表语。

Wh-type强调句可用来强调主语、宾语、表语,例如:

But what surprised me most was to see some of the villagepeople seated on the benches at the end of the room.

然而,最使我奇怪的是看到村子里的一些人坐在教室后头的长凳上。

But what he was really interested in was beautiful paiutings.

但是他真正感兴趣的是美丽的画。

What I feel is hungry.

我所感到的就是饿。

wh-type强调句还可以通过使用代动词do来强调句中的谓语动词或作宾语补足语的非谓语动词,例如:

What I did was (to) turn off the tap.

我所做的就是把水龙头关了。

What I want you to do is (to) clean the room.

我要你做的就是打扫房间。

注意,这一句型中be后面作表语的不定式可以省略to,如果所强调的动词是进行体,那么be之后用-ing形式和它相配,例如:

Whta I'm doing is teaching him a lesson.

我现在这样做是为了给他一次教训。


(本文转自aron高考英语工作室
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