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从一道高考题看冠词  

2010-09-12 21:05:36|  分类: 英语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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冠词是个虚词,在高考试题中对冠词的考查非常常见,如:2004年英语高考第22题
The Wilsons live in ______ A- shaped house near the coast. It is ____ 17th century cottage.A. the ; 不填            B. an; the          C. 不填   ; the         D. an; a      因为a 属于元音音素应该用an; 一般情况下17th century前应该用定冠词the 但在这道题中17th century用来修饰cottage表示 “一间17世纪的村舍”所以选 D。以下是冠词的具体考点:
一、不定冠词的考点
1、 不定冠词位于抽象名词前使抽象名词具体化。 1)表示情感的不可数名词前加不定冠词。如:feeling/honor/joy/pity/pleasure/surprise。     The little boy is a joy to her parents.
What a pleasant surprise you gave me!Eg:  It is _____ great pleasure to go to ____ cinema after a week’s hard work..     A. a; the   B. the ; a    C. a, a   D. the , the   答案选A. “ a great pleasure ’’表示“一件快乐的事”,go to the cinema 是一个固定词组   表示“看电影”。 2) 不可数名词danger/difficulty/disappointment/failure/help/success/wonder/pressure前加不定冠词表示“一-----的人或物”。This experiment is a great success to human beings.He is a failure as a teacher. Eg: It’s quiet obvious that the aging population I China will cause ____ heavy pressure on ____ whole society in the future.
A. a; a   B. the ,/   C. a ,the     D. /, the  
答案选C.
2、 不定冠词位于专有名词前使专有名词普通化。A Mr.Green paid a visit to you this morning.Eg: _____ Mr Zhang is waiting for you in the office. I seem to have seen him in ____ newspaper.A. A ; /   B. A ; a   C. / ; /    D. The; the 答案选B. a Mr Zhang 表示“ 有一位张先生”in a newspaper泛指表示“一份报纸”.
3、 不定冠词某些名词前表示“一份”、“一种”或“一阵/场”。如:a  coffee/tea/frog/rain/snow/wind.Eg: Towards _____ morning, _____ heavy rain began to fall.
A. the; a     B. a; a      C. the ;/    D. the ;the
答案选A. a heavy rain 表示"一阵大雨”.a coffee 一份咖啡   a red tea 一种红茶   a strong wing  一阵大风
4、 序数词前加不定冠词表示“又一”。 My mother had a third baby.妈妈又有了孩子。(原来有两个)
Eg: Give it _____ second thought and you’ll find it wise to accept ___ job.  A. the ; the    B. a ; a    C. a ; the     D. the ; a
答案选C. a second thought 表示“再次考虑 ”the job 表示特指这项工作。
5、不定冠词运用于固定习语中。
have a look at/have a history ( knowledge /population) of/have a wonderful time/ in such a hurry/in a minute /all of a sudden/pay a visit to/ make it a rule/, keep an eye on / give sb a hand/
二、定冠词考点
1、 乐器前必须加定冠词。  play the piano /guitar / violin 
2、 年代、时代、朝代前加定冠词。  in the 1870s  the Ming Dynasty  in the modern times
3、 某些独一无二的事物前须加定冠词。 the Great Wall / the universe/the moon/the star/the Communist Party/the United States/ the Changjiang River/the Summer Palace/ The Atlantic Ocean
4、 形容词前加定冠词表示“一类人”。 the elderly / the young /the wounded /the rich/the poor/the beautiful/the ugly
5、 固定句型中 1)beat / hit / knock / pat / strike sb +in / on the+部位               catch / grasp / pull /take / seize sb by the +部位
例如: The police caught the thief by the hand.
Eg: When I told him he had to be paid by ____ hour, he become angry and hit      me on ___nose.
A. an; my   B. the ; the   C. an ;the     D. / ;a
答案选B. be paid by the hour 表示”以小时来支付”, hit sb on the nose表示”打在某人的鼻子上”,the 都不能省略.

2) the more------ the better 这个类似的句型中 the 不可以省略例如:It is known to all that the harder you work, the better result you’ll make.
Eg: ____ more you use a dictionary, ____ more useful it will become to you.
A. The ;the    B. The ;/  C. /; the     D. / ; /   
答案选A.
6、 固定词组at the age of / the other day / on the way to ----/ with the help of / make the best use of /put sb to the trouble of doing sth / be in the habit of / the talk of the town/at the very beginning/ by the hour/
7、 固定句型  What’s the matter with-----?  What’s the differences between----?  What’s the population/height/ length/weight of------?
三、零冠词的考点
1、 单个的专有名词;表示泛指、类指的物质名词和抽象名词前不加冠词。  China is a large country with a long history.  Knowledge begins with practice.
2、 三餐名词、四季、学科、球类、棋类前不加冠词。
for breakfast / lunch / supper; play chess/ football/ basketball; learn maths
3、 唯一的职务、头衔名词前不加冠词。如:captain, chairman, head, president, monitor. He was elected president of the USA. Tom was made monitor of our class.
Eg: Lincoln was elected ____ President of ____ United States in 1860.  A. the ; the       B. / ; the    C. a; /       D. /;/ 答案选B.the president 表示头衔;the United States是独一无二的事物。 
4、特殊用法   1)man/ mankind表示“人类”和 word 表示“消息”时一般不加冠词。       例如: Word came that he had been saved by the doctor.
Eg: Early in the morning ____ word came that David had been made _____governor of the state.  A. the ;the    B. / ; /    C. a ; the    D. / ; the
答案选B. word表示“消息”时一般不加冠词,governor 表示头衔不加冠词.
2)有些物质名词和抽象名词前永远不加冠词即使有形容词也不加。常见的有:weather, progress , fun ,advice, news, information, work (工作),  luck, furniture, wealth, honesty.
5、 在以in或with结构表示某种情感或状态时不加冠词。  如:in danger/ hunger / fear/ sorrow/ safety /trouble/surprise. 或 tremble with fear (由于害怕而颤抖)/ cry with anger (由于生气而哭泣)
6、固定词汇 at daybreak (midnight) / by bus (car/bike)/by mistake(law) / go to church / in bed /at table / be in hospital / in silence/in peace/ hand in hand / face to face/ in need of / make room for / make use of/take(leave) office/on second thoughts/on business/in uniform/in debt
配套练习:
1. ----- My son is lost. Did you see a boy passing by here? ----- I saw _____ boy hidden behind ______ tree over there. You may go and have a look.     A.  a; a     B. the ; the     C. a; the     D. the ; a
2. Having ____ good manners is seen by many people as ____ sign of cultural understanding and good taste.     A. /;the     B. the ;/        C. the ;the    D. the ; a
3. Mary considered that doing the office work was just the kind of _____ job she wanted.    A. a demanding   B. demanding   C. a demanded   D. demanded
4. ------ Do you think the weather is good enough for a picnic? -----Yes. You couldn’t hope for _____.   A. a nice day   B. the nicer day  C. a nicer day   D. the nicest day
5. Do you know ____ art played ____ more important part in people’s lives in the 18th century than it does today?
A. an ; the   B. / ; a    C. the ; a    D. the ; the
6. Charles Barclay, ___ NBA all-star, hasn’t missed  ___ game in ___ past years.  A. an; a; the      B a ; a; the     C. /; a; the     D. an ;a ;/
7.it is said that the company in_____ charge of him is in ____ debt now.  A. the ; the      B. /;/          C. /; the       D. the ; /

8. My mother asked me to repeat ___telephone number ___second time so that she could write it down.   A. the ; a     B. an; the       C. an; a      D. the ;the
9. ------ He wants to have ___ word with you.------- I know ___word has come that I am the next person he wants to talk to.  A. /; the       B. a; the        C. a; /      D. the; a
10. I’ve never studied ____- engineering, but I’ve got ____ good practical knowledge of machines. A. the ;a        B. / ; /          C. / ; a     D. an ; the
11. As is known to all, ___ tiger is in _____ danger of dying out. A. the ,/        B. a ,/          C. the ,the   D. a, a
12.Thank you for sending us ______ fresh vegetables of many kinds ,You have done us ____ great service.  A. / ; a       B. the ; a        C. / ; /      D. the ; /
13.______ new gym in our school was completed in ____ Oct.of 2002,not in _____ Aug.A. The ,the , /   B. A, / , /       C. A, the ,the    D. The , /, /
14. About 25% of ____ European can speak ____ foreign language besides their native language.   A. the ,a      B. an , the       C. the , the     D. / ; / 
15. ------- What do you think about _____ dress in the shopwindow?  ------- Oh, it’s beautiful .She will be pleased if she can have it as _____ birthday present.   A. a; a       B. the ; a        C. a ; the       D. the ,the
16. ______ he saw now was not the same as he had left 50 years before.  A. The China  B. China        C. A China      D. So China
17. When it comes to bringing up children, some people say ____ discipline produces ___- happy, well -behaved child. A. a;the       B./;a            C. a, a          D. / ,the
18. Teaching ____ child to cook will improve many of the skill that he or she will need later in ___ life. A. /; the      B. a; /           C. a ; the        D. the ; a
19._____ Yuanmingyuan might blur history’s details, but it will honor China’s past in ____ Chinese way. A. The ;/     B. The ;/the       C. A; /             D.  A; a
20.As ____ unemployment is very high nowadays, it is very difficult for people to find ____ work. A. the ;/     B. the ; a          C. / ; /            D. an ; the 
参考答案:
1-5 CABCB  6----10  ADACC 11---15 AAAAB    16---20 ABBD      

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