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形容词做状语用法及典型题例  

2010-07-27 19:26:45|  分类: 英语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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       Many people had lucky escapes.One woman was lying in bed,awake.

本文该句中的awake为形容词作伴随状语,补充说明谓语动词was lying,下面将分别就形容词作状语和可作伴随状语的几种表达法作以归纳。

已般情况下,由副词在句子中作状语,用与修饰动词;修饰形容词或者副词;或者修饰整个句子。

    但是对于形容词作状语这一现象,很多同学难以理解,实际上,形容词作状语的现象是不少见 该形容词通常用来说明主语的情况,常常可以单独或者引起一短语作状语;可以表示原因,也 以表示动作的情况或者方式,或者表时间,表原因。

一、形容词作状语的情况

形容词除了常见的在句中作定语、表语和宾语补足语外,也可像副词一样在句中作状语。

1.原因

Overjoyed,he rushed out of the house.

Much interested,he agreed to give it a try.

Afraid of difficulties,they prefer to take the easy road.

2.时间

Ripe(When ripe),these apples are sweet.

3.伴随或方式

He spent 7days in the wind and snow,cold and hungry.

Helpless,we watched the house being destroyed before our eyes.

二、可用作伴随状语的几种方式

1.形容词

They all rushed up,eager to help.

She returned to work,unhappy.

2.现在分词

I don't like to sit here doing nothing.

He rushed out,even forgetting to take his overcoat.

3.过去分词

Accompanied by the professor,he spent several days doing experiments one after another.

4.介词短语

I said it in fun.

5.名词短语

Theory should go hand in hand with practice.

6.独立结构

He lay on his back,his hands crossed under his head.

The teacher came in,book in hand.

With the old man leading,they two started toward the mountain.

Now he could walk only with his brother supporting him.

 

一般情况下,由副词在句子中作状语,用与修饰动词;修饰形容词或者副词;或者修饰整个句子。

    但是对于形容词作状语这一现象,很多同学难以理解,实际上,形容词作状语的现象是不少见  该形容词通常用来说明主语的情况,常常可以单独或者引起一短语作状语;可以表示原因,也 以表示动作的情况或者方方式,或者表时间,表原因。

      1、Afraid of being caught,the thief hid himself under a bed.

         因为害怕被抓,这个小偷藏在床下面。

      2、Curious about everything,we look around.                              

         因为对所有的事物好奇,我们四下张望。

      3、Unable to answer the question,the students keep silent.

         因为不能回答该问题,这些学生保存沉默。

     表动作的情况或者方式

      4、Overjoyed,she dashed out of the house.

         他非常高兴,急步跑出屋去。

      5、He approached us full of apologies.

         他满口歉意地向我们走来。

      6、Dressed in white,the lady came into the docters office.

         这位小姐穿着白衣走进这位医生的办公室。

      表时间

      7、Ripe,these apples are sweet.

        熟了时这种苹果很甜。

      8、Ethusiastic,they are quite cooperative.

      热心时他们是很合作的。

典型题例

(NMET 2006) 32题:
  ________and happy, Tony stood up and accepted the prize.
  A. Surprising
  B. Surprised
  C. Being surprised
  D. To be surprising
  此题正确答案是B?有人做出如下简析: 本题考查形容词的特殊用法即形容词作状语?surprised在此处用作形容词(惊奇的),表示伴随状态,与happy并列?因为逻辑主语是Tony,所以不用surprising? Being surprised中的being通常省略,最佳答案是B?
  人教版的新编高一英语教材Unit 7课文最后一句是: Strong, proud and united, the people of St Petersburg are the heroes of Russia.
  该句在教材167页的注释为:“句子前面的形容词短语strong, proud and united可视为状语,在正式英语里可以这样用”?教参146页对该句的解释是:“strong, proud and united为前置定语,相当于一个非限定性定语从句: The people of St Petersburg, who are strong, proud and united, are the heroes of Russia”?而在薄冰所著《高级英语语法》中,此类现象又被归为主语补助语?
  可见,对该形容词进行句法分析并不是一件容易的事情?但该结构本身确实值得注意,因为它极易与副词或副词短语充当状语相混淆?请看下例:
  1. Hopefully, we can get this done before dark.
  2. Helpless, we watched our home destroyed before our eyes.
  仔细分析两句就能发现: 第一,例1中,副词hopefully修饰整个句子,它在逻辑上和后面一整句话We can get this done before dark.构成了主谓关系?即That we can get this done before dark is hopeful.例2中形容词helpless修饰主语,和句子的主语we构成逻辑上的主谓关系,即We are helpless.
  第二,例1可以变为主语从句: It’s hopeful that we can get this done before dark.例2则相当于状语从语: We are helpless when we watched our home destroyed before our eyes.
  从这两点考虑,2004年春季上海卷34题就很容易了?
  ________, some famous scientists have the qualities of being both careful and careless.
  A. Strangely enough
  B. Enough strangely
  C. Strange enough
  D. Enough strange
  Strange的逻辑主语不是some famous scientists,而是some famous scientists have the qualities of being both careful and careless.该句可以变为: It’s strange enough that some scientists have the qualities of being both careful and careless.所以正确答案选A?
  综上所述,可以这么说,碰到这类题时,凡是对整个句子作评述性的说明时,要选副词性的词语;凡是说明主语的性质和状态的句子中则要选用形容词性的词语?此外,还要注意形容词和形容词化的过去分词当状语与双重谓语的差别?总之,修饰全句的词语均属插入语?
  【即时巩固练习】
  1. After the Anti-terrorist war, many American soldiers returned home,________.
   A. safe but tired B. safely but tired
   C. safe and tiringD. safely and tiring
  2.________, he decided to give it a try.
   A. Much interestedly
   B. More importantly
   C. Much interest
   D. Much interested
  3.________, he’s got a steady job.
   A. More important
   B. More importantly
   C. More importance
   D. Much importantly
  4.________, Sister Carrie joined the stream of job seekers again.
   A. Coldly and hungry
   B. Cold and hungrily
   C. Cold and hungry
   D. Coldly and hugrily
  5.________, he found the money that he had lost.
   A. Unfortunately B. Unfortunate
   C. FortunateD. Fortunately
  6.________, she is my good role model.
   A. Confident and honest
   B. Confidently and honestly
   C. Confi

 dent and honestly
   D. Confidently and honest
  7.________, I don’t think the plan will succeed.
   A. Frankly speaking
   B. Frank speaking
   C. Speaking frank
   D. Speaking frankly
  
  Keys: 1. A2. D3. B4. C5. D6. A7. A
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